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. Navaratnaparīksā . In: Finot, L. (1896), pp. 141–178. Pañcatantra see Kale, M. R. (ed.) (1969). Pārāśara, R. (1972): Ratnavijñāna (Gemmology) . Varanasi. PW

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KA II, 11, 28–41 is the earliest extant Sanskrit text on ratnaśāstra ‘gemmology’. It is a branch of traditional science and it reflects a great deal of experimental knowledge of jewellers. The present paper analyses the structure of the established text, seeks for an answer why the passages concerning diamond follow the list of the precious stones proper and why emerald is missing. The readings offered by the manuscripts and commentaries have been rechecked and the Kangle’s text has been revised at places. The revised portions of the text have been retranslated and accompanied with the necessary notes. From our investigations it has become clear that the extant text is very loosely edited and highly problematic; the text presents a mixture of vārttāśāstra (textbook of economy) and ratnaśāstra ; there are terminological inconsistencies; it seems that gemmology had existed before the edition of the KA and the place of birth of this science was South India.

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The lithium content of the gem mineral, Sugilite, was determined by promt alpha spectrometry from the reaction7Li (p, α)4He with 1000 keV protons, and by proton-induced prompt photon spectrometry (PIPPS) of the 479-keV7Li, p(1,0) gamma-ray excited by 1000 and 4500 keV protons and 429-keV7Li n(1,0) gamma-ray induced by 4500 keV protons. The lithium content was found to be 3.72±0.06% by mass as Li2O. Simulated mineral matrices were used as standards.

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