Authors:Miodrag Mihaljević, Sugata Gangopadhyay, Goutam Paul, and Hideki Imai
This paper considers security implications of k-normal Boolean functions when they are employed in certain stream ciphers.
A generic algorithm is proposed for cryptanalysis of the considered class of stream ciphers based on a security weakness of
k-normal Boolean functions. The proposed algorithm yields a framework for mounting cryptanalysis against particular stream
ciphers within the considered class. Also, the proposed algorithm for cryptanalysis implies certain design guidelines for
avoiding certain weak stream cipher constructions. A particular objective of this paper is security evaluation of stream cipher
Grain-128 employing the developed generic algorithm. Contrary to the best known attacks against Grain-128 which provide complexity
of a secret key recovery lower than exhaustive search only over a subset of secret keys which is just a fraction (up to 5%)
of all possible secret keys, the cryptanalysis proposed in this paper provides significantly lower complexity than exhaustive
search for any secret key. The proposed approach for cryptanalysis primarily depends on the order of normality of the employed
Boolean function in Grain-128. Accordingly, in addition to the security evaluation insights of Grain-128, the results of this
paper are also an evidence of the cryptographic significance of the normality criteria of Boolean functions.
Authors:Ling-Chu Lee, Yi-Yang Lee, and Yi-Ching Liaw
The collection of domain keywords
Among ten main Taiwanese agricultural development areas, we take the grain area as an example to demonstrate the executive process of Taiwanese agricultural
-citation proximity levels based on articles published in the BMC Bioinformatics journal. Citespace (Chen 2006 ) is used to visualize these co-citation networks. First, a traditional co-citation network is visualized as a base network. Then, a finer-grained co
heuristic described in (Blondel et al. 2008 ), using different values of r , we arrived at a range of partitions, from fine-grained ( K = 5000) to coarse ( K = 500). The values of K were specified in advance, and the optimization procedure was executed
-level performance has produced mixed and inconsistent results… Mixed results suggest that scholars need to understand the impact of diversification at a finer-grained level of detail (Lubatkin et al. 2001 ).” And while prior work on resource-based synergies has
the oil crisis) (Han et al. 2010 ; Mabe and Amin 2001 ).
In comparison to earlier research this article uses a fine-grained delineation of research fields—selecting literature instead of humanities and physics instead of hard science
Authors:Mauro Vitor Mendlowicz, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho, Jerson Laks, Leonardo Franklin Fontenelle, Alexandre Martins Valença, William Berger, Ivan Figueira, and Gláucia Azambuja de Aguiar
here. Despite their simplicity and intuitive appeal, we believe, however, that interpretations involving last authorship must be taken with a grain of salt, since there is still no empirical demonstration that Brazilian academic psychiatrists consider
Authors:M. Angeles Zulueta, Gisela Cantos-Mateos, Benjamín Vargas-Quesada, and Carmen Sánchez
allows us to corroborate whether the main lines of research detected correspond with the actual changes in the literature described in the Introduction. A coarse-grained study such as this, whose thematic and temporal coverage are so broad, calls for a