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Authors: Volker Micheel, Benedikt Hogan, Rivo Rakotoarivelo, Raphael Rakotozandrindrainy, Fetra Razafimanatsoa, Tsiriniaina Razafindrabe, Jean Rakotondrainiarivelo, Sabine Crusius, Sven Poppert, Norbert Schwarz, Jürgen May, Hagen Frickmann and Ralf Hagen

This study assesses the nasal occurrence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae both in patients in a hospital department of infectious diseases at admission and in healthy Madagascan students and health care workers.Nasal swabs from 681 students, 824 health care workers, and 169 patients were obtained in Antananarivo, Madagascar, and transferred to Germany. Screening for β-lactamase (ESBL, ampC) producing Enterobacteriaceae was performed by cultural and molecular approaches, comprising Brilliance ESBL agar, E-testing, ABCD-testing, and commercial hyplex ESBL and SuperBug ID PCR.Regarding ESBL-positive strains and strains with resistance against at least three out of the four tested bactericidal antibiotic drugs, 0.3% (five out of 1541) of the students and health care workers group showed nasal colonization, whereas colonization was observed in 7.1% (12 out of 169) of the hospitalized patients at admission. No appreciably reduced detection rates after sample storage and intercontinental transport were observed.A considerable proportion of nasal colonization with cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was demonstrated in Madagascan hospital patients at admission, posing a risk of developing future endogenous infections. The nasal colonization of healthy individuals was negligible. Good storage and transport stability of Enterobacteriaceae will allow for future studies even in areas difficult to access.

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Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that has been used for centuries for the treatment of several diseases and this feature is obviously attributed to the presence of a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites including hypericins. In the present study, the aim was to determine total hypericin content of this plant from wild population of Northern Turkey. Thus, Hypericum perforatum plants representing a total of 45 wild populations were collected from 15 sites in each of 3 regions, during flowering and subsequently assayed for total hypericin. Hypericin content in these wild populations varied from 0.28 to 4.46 mg/g dry matter. According to the results of analysis of variance, there was a significant difference in hypericin content between sites as well as regions. One of the problems associated with medicinal plant preparations is the extreme variability in the phytomedicinal and marker compounds. Products containing H. perforatum have varied greatly in content of secondary metabolites since it is currently supplied by cultivated and wild-harvested materials. Therefore the variation of phytomedicinals like hypericin in H. perforatum, especially from wild populations has a great importance in term of health care and herbal industry.

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Authors: Hagen Frickmann, Wibke Schmeja, Emil Reisinger, Thomas Mittlmeier, Karen Mitzner, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Philipp Warnke and Andreas Podbielski

References 1. Hofmann F , Kralj N , Beie M : Needle stick injuries in health care – frequency, causes and preventive strategies

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, Rakotozandrindrainy R , Razafimanatsoa F , Razafindrabe T , Rakotondrainiarivelo JP , Crusius S , Poppert S , Schwarz NG , May J , Frickmann H , Hagen RM : Identification of nasal colonization with ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients, health

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.): Botanical roots of raw drugs. The traditional health care. The MedPlan Cons Soc., Bangalore 7 (3): 3–8. Ved D. K. Botanical roots of raw drugs. The

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Authors: Éva Németh-Zámbori, Zsuzsanna Pluhár, Krisztina Szabó, Mahmoud Malekzadeh, Péter Radácsi, Katalin Inotai, Bonifác Komáromi and Katarzyna Seidler-Lozykowska

leaf . European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Health Care, Strasbourg, ISBN/ISSN: 978-92-871-7531-1 p. 1318 . 21. Pluhár, Zs

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Authors: Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Muhstaq Ahmed, Muhammad Wasim Khan and Rahmat Ali Khan

, 601 – 612 . 19. Holtz , C. ( 2007 ) Global health care: Issues and policies . Jones & Bartlett Publishers , Sudbury, MA . 20

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Authors: Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Tala Pourlak, Mina Aghamali, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Pourya Gholizadeh and Hossein Samadi Kafil

and epidemiology of extendedspectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing health care-associated infection in Thailand, where the CTX-M family is endemic . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 , 2818

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Authors: Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz and Hagen Frickmann

, Razafindrabe T , Rakotondrainiarivelo JP , Crusius S , Poppert S , Schwarz NG , May J , Frickmann H , Hagen RM : Identification of nasal colonization with ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in patients, health care workers and students in

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gastroenterology and nutrition: a review of some recent advances . Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 38 , 204 – 228 ( 2008 ) 28. Bowen AB , Braden

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