Authors:Norrin Halilem, Nabil Amara, and Réjean Landry
As an adaptation to its new environment, universities have engaged in various organisational innovations and taken a more active role in the orientation of the researcher. The emerging institutional management imposes specific constraints and opportunities for researchers. Thus, the impact of institutional membership, notably on the different institutional policies, is increasingly a dominant force in academic working lives. However, some scholars have argued that the context of researchers remains an Ivory Tower situation, where academic working life is defined through the twin discourse of academic freedom and professional autonomy. This article analyses the activities of research faculty members funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, in comparison to the theories that contribute to the explanation of researchers’ behaviour. By using intra-class correlation, which is based on a multi-level analysis of the variance distribution, we find that the grouping effect is still small. In other words, despite the emerging constraints and opportunities determined by their institutional context, researchers still exist in an Ivory Tower, where the explanation of their behaviour is still a matter of individual differences.
Authors:Lutz Bornmann, Markus Wolf, and Hans-Dieter Daniel
Oberlander , J , Gill , AJ 2006 Language with character: A stratified corpus comparison of individualdifferences in e-mail communication . Discourse Processes 42 3 239 – 270 10.1207/s15326950dp4203
Relationships between age and scholarly impact were assessed by determining the number of times single-author articles (N=227) published inPsychological Review between 1965 and 1980 were cited in the fifth year following publication. There were substantial individual differences in citation rates, but this measure of scholarly impact did not correlate with either the chronological age of authors or their professional age (years since PhD award). Although the majority of articles inPsychological Review were published by authors under the age of 40, such a bias is to be expected in terms of the age distribution of American psychologists. When allowance was made for the number of authors in different age ranges, older authors were no less likely than younger authors to have generated a high-impact article (an article cited 10 or more times in the fifth year after publication). The data offer no support to claims that publications by young scientists have greater impact.
international authors corresponds to the category of “information processing: individualdifference” in Shih's results. However, although the purposes are identical, the implementation and methods between MIS authors and Shih et al. are different. (6) Although
between the networks, but is becoming more similar. Strong individualdifferences on the province level (e.g. Zhejiang crossover). Evaluation of both networks separately can reveal the spatial focus of the regional activity (domestic vs. global