The study summarises the author’s field experience regarding the most widespread livelihood strategies among the Romanian Gabor Roma. Through a series of examples, it demonstrates how Gabor traders adapt — most of them successfully — to the new economic and social challenges that have emerged in the post-socialist transformation. The study also outlines and analyses how the politics of ethnicity is employed in their livelihood strategies. It aims to make the economic practices through which the Gabors earn their living more “visible” (thereby demystifying the process of “production”) and to counterbalance and complement the dominance of “consumption” which characterised the author’s earlier studies concerning the prestige economy of the Gabor Roma. Furthermore, the study may help to deconstruct negative ethnic stereotypes regarding the work ethic of the Roma, such as “Roma are lazy”, and, as a result, it may contribute to the destigmatisation of Roma in everyday — media and other — discourses.
description, the following terms will be used: the first element , to refer to the first part of a discontinuous phrase, and the second element , to refer to the last part of this construction. The place of the gap will be called the intermediate area
The author presents a historical-etymological analysis of two Russian words – kunžut ‘sesame’ and xamovnik ‘weaver’. According to her argumentation, Russian kunžut has Tokharian origin, it was borrowed from Tokharian A by Old Uygur before the 12th century. From Old Uygur, it was intermediated by Middle Mongol and Middle Kipchak to Russian. Xam, the stem of xamovnik is preserved in one of the Old Novgorodian birk barch letter from the beginning of the 14th century. It was borrowed from the Cantonese dialect of the Chinese language by West Old Turkic, and a West Old Turkic form was borrowed by Old Russian.
Recent research on L2 acquisition has been stressing the potential of audiovisual translation as a tool for boosting foreign language competence. Whereas most studies have concentrated on subtitled input, less attention has been devoted to dubbing, which is nevertheless the main audiovisual translation modality in several countries. Being the outcome of a translation process, dubbed dialogue is subject to translation universals, including simplification, explicitation and standardisation. These strategies may contribute to the greater accessibility of dubbed vis-à-vis original, non-translated products to non-native viewers. With a view to exploring the role of dubbing in ultimately fostering second language acquisition, an empirical study on the comprehension of different types of audiovisual input by learner-viewers was designed. The study moves from the assumption that input comprehension is a necessary prerequisite for acquisition proper and compares the degree of comprehension of dubbed vs. non-translated film scenes among intermediate-level learners of L2 Italian. Quantitatively and qualitatively comparable film scenes were selected and dialogue comprehension was assessed through closed and timed questions administered after exposure to each scene. Findings show that dubbed audiovisual input results in better comprehension than non-translated film dialogue independently of viewers’ L1 and audiovisual texts’ individual features. The study thus paves the way for further research on the acquisitional impact of dubbed dialogue, especially among learners at lower proficiency levels.
The author discusses similes of southern Slavs (Bulgarians and peoples of the former Yugoslavia, i.e. Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, and Montenegrins) with a semantically similar component such as an anthroponym of Oriental origin. The author deals with both outdated similes and those that are actively used nowadays.
Orientalisms usually include words belonging to different groups of Turkic as well as Iranian and Arab-Semitic languages. Historical events and language contacts contributed to the borrowing of thematically diverse Orientalisms by South Slavic languages. The result of the five-century domination of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula is borrowing from the Old Ottoman (Old Turkish) language, which became both the source language and (often) the intermediate language through which Arabisms and Persisms entered the South Slavic recipient languages. Therefore, in Bulgaria, the term Turkish-Arabic-Persian words is used to refer to this vocabulary. In addition to the Arab-Persian elements, the old Ottoman language is rich in borrowings from other languages (e.g. Greek). The term Turkish usually refers to the vocabulary of the old Ottoman rather than the modern Turkish language. Due to the vastness of anthroponyms of Oriental origin as a special genetic layer of South Slavic vocabulary, the author analyzes the expressions that denote a person in such aspects as intelligence, gender, and occupation.
Oriental vocabulary penetrated into the languages of Southern Slavs mainly through oral spoken language. The degree of penetration of Turkish words into the languages of the peoples of Southern Slavia is different. The outcome of borrowings also varies: they either remained in the recipient languages as exoticism, or have been completely assimilated in them. During semantic adaptation in the language that accepts Oriental vocabulary, there is sometimes an expansion or contraction of the meaning of a word. Many of the Turkish words that make up the comparison became historicisms and entered the passive vocabulary and in the modern language they are not used because of the disappearance of the realities they denote (for example, words associated with the system of administration in the Ottoman era). Another reason for transition into the passive vocabulary in the Balkans is the process of replacing the original words.
The paper defines the functional, semantic, and stylistic status of Eastern vocabulary in different social and cultural layers (standard languages and dialects) of South Slavic similes. Due to historical reasons, the greatest number of borrowings from the Turkish language as a part of similes is observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as in Shtokavian dialects of Croatia. In addition to this, the author gives cultural, historical, and etymological comments to similes, analyzing the meaning of units and components that are parts of similes.
[__ 1 Mary see ]? b. This imposes a strong rule ordering: there must occur an intermediate, secondary A-bar movement to the phase edge (movement b. above) if the element moves outside of its own minimal phase. In Finnish, grammatical features [φ, pol
(referring to negotiations and treaties) Bowen, Bowen and Dobosz (1990) ; Takeda (2009) and/or War/Peace Interpreting (defining intermediation in conflict) Baker (2006 , 2010) ; Escort Interpreting for Diplomats (referring to official visits) Weller
countryside of Dalmatia, Venetia-Histria and Pannonia Superior (the “Danube-Adria” area) show the most mixed characteristics, therefore they probably had a transitional or intermediate variant of Vulgar Latin between the Latin of the Eastern and Southern
Authors:Katalin Balogné Bérces and Patrick Honeybone
‘chronologically’ ordered with respect to each other, producing multi-stage chains of derivation with intermediate representations – defining ‘derivational’ phonological theory), while representation is simply composed of unordered bundles of binary features