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Cultural borrowing between the English and Slavic languages in the last one hundred years, and especially in the latter half of the twentieth century was mostly a unidirectional process with the English as the source and Slavic languages as the target. This paper is an attempt to fill this void in examining the other direction of lexical transfer between English and Slavic languages. The following general conclusions can be drawn from the analysis: a) Lexical and cultural influence from subordinate to dominant language is by and large limited to the culture-bound items. Borrowed vocabulary items remain marginal in the overall English vocabulary. Several exceptions from this trend, i.e., the words which have made it to the core of the English vocabulary, are result of the butterfly effect and cannot be accounted for by some general trend; b) Lexical influence of each particular language is directly proportionate to language size. Exceptions from this general trend occur, as demonstrated by East Slavic languages, when one Slavic language clearly dominates others; c) The timeline of borrowing is directly proportionate with the growth and deepening of international communication networks in the nineteenth and in particular twentieth centuries.

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The present paper discusses the written tradition of Burgenland Croats currently residing in the South of Slovakia. Before the Second World War this group of Burgenland Croats belonged to Hungary, so the preserved letters of rural residents of the border village Chunova retain a number of features characteristic of the Hungarian orthography of the beginning of last century, lexical borrowings from the languages of the environment (primarily German) and dialect features which have been lost by now. The correspondence from the beginning of the last century reflects the cultural, historical and linguistic situation typical of Burgenland Croats living in the enclave. A study of their letters published recently, in 2017, reveals the traits of their language, everyday life and some features of traditional folk culture.

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Studia Slavica
Людмила Гарбуль

Данная статья посвящена проблематике сложных межславянских языковых контактов в XVII в. и продолжает цикл публикаций автора на эту тему. Исследование опирается на историко-филологи-ческие методы, которые помогают установить направление языкового влияния при контактирова-нии генетически родственных языков. Успешному применению указанных методов способствует использование данных исторических словарей восточнославянских и западнославянских языков с большой глубиной диахронии и широким кругом памятников письменности разных жанров и различного происхождения. Эта информация помогает выявлять межславянские заимствования и верифицировать результаты предшествующих исследований.

В публикации на материале дипломатической корреспонденции Московского государства рас-сматривается происхождение и история четырех лексем: навезенье ‘пребывание в неволе, в плену, в заключении’, надарити / надарыти ‘одарить, наделить чем-л.; подарить что-л.’, новокрещенецъ / но-вокщенецъ ‘тот, кто недавно крестился, принял христианство; лицо, перешедшее в христианство из другого вероисповедания’, новообранный ‘вновь избранный, новоизбранный’ во всех контактиро-вавших языках: русском, польском, письменности Великого княжества Литовского, а также белорус-ском и украинском языках. Цель автора – доказать, что эти слова являются лексическими заимство-ваниями из польского языка. Исследование основано на тщательном сопоставлении данных разного типа словарей русского, белорусского, украинского и польского языков, что позволило доказать неисконность рассматриваемых лексем в русском языке и установить источник заимствования, а также выявить посредническую роль письменности ВКЛ в польско-русских языковых контактах.

В результате анализа материала было установлено, что все четыре лексемы, вероятнее всего, яв-ляются полонизмами, при этом слова надарити / надарыти, новокрещенецъ / новокщенецъ и ново-обранный проникли в русский письменный язык XVII в., по-видимому, благодаря посредничеству письменности ВКЛ. Кроме того, для лексемы надарити / надарыти была конкретизирована хро-нологическая характеристика, а для слова новообранный удревнено время появления его в русском письменном языке.

Материалы данной публикации могут быть использованы для дополнения и уточнения информа-ции этимологических и исторических словарей славянских языков.

This paper is devoted to the problems of complex inter-Slavic language contacts in the 17th century and continues the author’s cycle of publications on this topic. The study is based on historical and philological methods that help to establish the direction of language influence when genetically related languages contact. The successful application of these methods is facilitated by the use of historical dictionaries of the West Slavic and East Slavic languages with a great depth of diachrony and a wide range of written monuments of different genres and various origins. This information helps to identify inter-Slavic language borrowings and verify the results of previous studies.

The paper examines the origin and history of four words found in the Muscovite diplomatic correspondence: navezenie ‘captivity, imprisonment’, nadariti / nadaryti ‘to give, to bestow’, novokreščeniec ‘neophyte; Anabaptist’, novoobrannyj ‘newly elected’ in all contacting languages: Russian, Polish, the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as well as Belarusian and Ukrainian. The author aims at proving that these words are lexical borrowings from the Polish language. The study is based on a careful comparison of data of various types of dictionaries of the Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Polish languages, which made it possible to prove the foreign origin of these tokens in the Russian language and to establish the source of borrowings as well as to identify the intermediary role of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in Polish–Russian language contacts.

As a result of the study, it was found that all four lexemes are Polonisms. It was also established that the words nadariti / nadaryti, novokreščeniec, and novoobrannyj were introduced to the Russian written language of the 17th century, most likely due to the mediation of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In addition, the time of appearance of the word nadariti / nadaryti in the Russian written language was specified, and an earlier chronology was established for the word novoobrannyj.

The materials in this publication can be used to supplement and clarify the information of the etymological and historical dictionaries of the Slavic languages.

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The work which forms the bulk of the present study was carried out on the basis of numerous pieces of field material collected by means of an ethnolinguistic questionnaire in villages inhabited by Burgenland Croats in Western Hungary and Southern Slovakia (where part of the Hungarian territory was annexed after World War II). The field data contain a number of latent and obvious borrowings from Hungarian folk culture. By latent borrowings we mean cultural phenomena that were initially feebly expressed in a particular tradition (and tended to be lost), but during long coexistence with a neighboring heterogeneous tradition they were eventually maintained due to the developed state of the similar phenomena in the neighboring population. We also include here cultural phenomena that are typical of both traditions and have deep roots in the universal model of the naive world view. Analyzing the popular culture and dialects of enclave villages of Burgenland Croats in Hungary and Slovakia, we show that traditional folk culture with the corresponding vocabulary nevertheless acts as an important marker of identity for the population living in a foreign language environment.

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Emil Baleczky (his pseudonyms: E. Latorchanin, O. Vyshchak, and his cryptonym: E. A.) is one of the most prominent personalities in the history of Ukrainian studies in Hungary in the twentieth century. His main scientific interests include Transcarpathian dialectology and historical lexicology of the Ukrainian language.

The second stage of the scientist's professional carrier is connected with the University of Budapest, where in 1951, Emil Baleczky was appointed head of the Department of the Russian Language at the Institute of Foreign Languages, and at the same time assistant professor of the Russian Institute at the University.

Among the scientific interests of Emil Baleczky was the investigation of lexical units commonly used in Transcarpathia, first of all, in terms of their etymology. Among the achievements of the researcher, special attention must be paid to Emil Baleczky's attempt to determine the origin of some borrowed words, including those originally Slavic, which are common in the Carpathian Ukrainian dialects.

Emil Baleczky performed a deep etymological and lingual-geographical analysis of the word урик, урюк, орек in the Ukrainian language, that of the word дюг widespread in Precarpathian Ukrainian, Polish, and Slovakian dialects, and also that of the noun kert in Transcarpathian Ukrainian dialects. The author devoted a separate paper to the study of the origin of dialecticisms like фотляк, csulka ~ csurka, бôшнак, булґар’, валах, ґириґ, тôўт, and циганин, investigated the etymology of the terms of national dishes widespread in Carpathian Ukrainian dialects, in particular of the token бáник. He considered the role of the Old Church Slavonic language in the history of the Carpathian Ukrainian dialects.

According to his contemporaries, it is known that Emil Baleczky did not maintain official connections with the Soviet Transcarpathians but was surprisingly well-informed about the scientific processes in his native land. He analyzed the works contained in the two editions of the Dialectological Collection of Uzhgorod State University. In addition to examining the issues raised, Baleczky complemented, specified, and sometimes criticized the achievements of his colleagues, which indicates his deep knowledge of Transcarpathian Ukrainian dialectology.

Thus, we can state that Emil Baleczky's works testify the high professionalism of the author, his profound knowledge in the field of synchronic and diachronic dialectology. The love of Transcarpathian dialects inspired the researcher to study them thoroughly as well as to present the research results to the general public of Slavists. The main area of Emil Baleczky's scientific interest until the end of his life was Ukrainian linguistics, particularly Transcarpathian Ukrainian dialectology.

The aim of this paper is to present the Emil Baleczky's achievements in the field of Transcarpathian Ukrainian dialectology, focusing on the period from 1957 to 1979.

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The article addresses the problem of mutual influences between different verbal magic traditions in the Baltic-Slavonic frontier territories. It discusses the possible ways of borrowing of exorcisms from Baltic tradition into Slavonic and vice versa as revealed by the analysis of text structure. The article exposes some specific distinctions of Lithuanian, Belarusian, Russian and Polish exorcisms. The author analyses plot peculiarities of exor-cisms, separate motives and magic formulas, as well as lexical borrowings. It is supposed, that lexical borrowings (transformed or preserved in unaltered form) have a particular supple-mentary semantic component - they are used to increase the expressiveness and efficiency of the magic text.

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Итоги работы по созданию «Электронного исторического словаря заимствованной лексики в русском языке XI–XVII вв.» Часть первая: грецизмы

The Results of the Compilation of The Electronic Historical Dictionary of Loanwords in the Russian Language of the 11th17th Centuries. Part One: Greek Loanwords

Studia Slavica
М. И. Чернышева
Е. И. Державина

Статья представляет собой первую часть работы, где показаны итоги работы по созданию «Элек-тронного исторического словаря заимствований в русском языке XI‒XVII вв.: грецизмы и поло-низмы» – первого электронного словаря заимствований в русской исторической лексикографии объемом около восьми тысяч лексем. Грецизмы и полонизмы в силу своих генетических, хронологи-ческих и функциональных показателей являются совершенно разными пластами лексики. Каждый пласт требует самостоятельного описания и использования индивидуальной методики исследова-ния. Они представлены в двух отдельных очерках.

Первая часть посвящена грецизмам (в «Электронном словаре» описано более четырех тысяч лек-сем). Показана структура электронного словаря, его параметры (поля). Основными задачами, кото-рые решались в ходе создания первой части, были следующие: идентификация с греческим языком; расширение объема описываемой лексики; выявление многообразных фонетических и морфологи-ческих вариантов; определение первых фиксаций и hapax legomena; установление, уточнение и / или исправление семантики в известных лексикографических описаниях; введение этимологических сведений; выявление «греческого пласта» в непереводной русской письменности и его словообра-зовательного развития и др.

В ходе исследования был расширен пласт описываемой лексики за счет более широкого понима-ния «грецизмов». Это позволило показать сложную картину освоения греческой по происхожде-нию лексики во всем многообразии фонетических и морфологических (в том числе, неадаптиро-ванных) форм, которые встретились в русской письменности XI–XVII вв. Был обнаружен и описан ряд лексем и лексических форм, не представленных до сих пор в русской исторической и славянской лексикографии. Показаны особенности адаптации и отражение показателей средневекового грече-ского языка в заимствованной лексике.

В «Электронный словарь» были включены производные слова. Два параметра «Электронного словаря» («переводные источники» и «оригинальные источники») – с указанием на конкретный источник и дату появления – дают возможность проследить момент вхождения и дальнейшее бы-тование лексемы греческого происхождения, а также ее приживаемость и словообразовательное развитие в оригинальной русской письменности XI–XVII вв. Эта тема нуждается в дальнейшем исследовании и заслуживает отдельного описания.

Электронный словарь позволяет проводить многочисленные поисковые операции, которые соз-дают многостороннее представление о путях проникновения, приживаемости и функционирова-нии лексики греческого происхождения в русском языке на широком хронологическом поле семи веков.

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This paper aims at giving an overview of the main traditional tendencies and new trends in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary. Traditionally, since the end of the 19th century, the main goal of investigations has been the interpretation of the Slavic linguistic and cultural influence on the Hungarian language and culture, having continuously been present in the Carpathian basin for more than a thousand year. The language contacts resulted in a vast number of lexical borrowings, calques, and toponyms of Slavic origin in Hungarian, and also in the appearance of Church Slavonic written sources of local redaction. The author describes the process of the methodological progress in the research of these areas and presents the most important results. Since the 1990’s, new trends have emerged in historical Slavic linguistics in Hungary that can be identified as the application of methods and frameworks of areal and theoretical (cognitive and generative) linguistics, which makes the renewal of this discipline possible.

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This paper is intented to analyze the lexical and semantic Polonisms identified in “The Translator’s Explication” and “The Preface to the Reader”, which precede the text of the Psalter 1683 in the translation of A. Firsov. The publication deals with 29 lexemes, with 18 of them being lexical borrowings. In two cases, they are not direct borrowings (cf. ƨлупый and читатель), but, most probably, are the result of the stimulating influence of the Polish language. According to the author, 11 words under analysis can be called semantic Polonisms. The paper also defines the role of the written language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the process of the borrowing of these lexical elements. On the basis of the results of the analysis of the corpus, the author also touches upon the question of the translator’s personality, which has remained debatable up to the present day.

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The paper deals with the twofold role of the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in inter-Slavonic, mainly Polish–Russian language contacts, based on the material of diplomatic correspondence of Muscovy. The author summarizes the research data proving that the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania played the role of an active mediator in the 15th–17th centuries in Polish–Russian language contacts and it was a source of lexical and semantic borrowings in the Russian written language and in the Polish written language. What is more, the paper examines anew some lexical borrowings from the written language of the Great Duchy of Lithuania in the Russian Chancery language of the 17th century as well as in the Polish language: golosovati / galasovati ‘cry, make a noise; make a hubbub’, navyklyj ‘accustomed to, habitual’ and futor / chutor ‘small settlement; khutor (separated farm)’.

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