Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889 (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has three distinctive reproductive modes: arrhenotokous, thelytokous and deuterotokous. This experiment was focused on the arrhenotokous leek-(L1) and tobacco-associated (T) T. tabaci lineages. These two lineages are distinctively varied genetically and in host adaptations. L1 and T lineages perform better on leek and tobacco plants, respectively. Fighting occurs between males when they compete for food, mating, and oviposition sites. The aim of this research was to examine the fighting behaviour and characterize the fighting elements of males in L1 and T lineages. The experiment was performed in the laboratory by using a Euromex VC.3036 video camera and each experiment was recorded for a duration of 10 minutes. Transparent PCR tube caps formed the arena to observe the fighting interactions in both lineages. A total of 40 video recordings have been observed and each recording had a different arena. The fighting performance was observed at 2, 5, 8, 10, 12 days old specimens in four replications. This result has shown L1 lineage had better fighting performance and a more aggressive fighting ability than T lineage. Antennal bouts, jumping, flipping, stabbing and pitching are the most commonly observed fighting elements.
Authors:Carlo Pazzini, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad and Beniam Ghebremedhin
Nowadays, multidrug-resistant bacteria are considered as an increasing serious threat to public health worldwide. Global and local surveillance data are helpful in the application of the most efficient antimicrobial agent in bacterial infections. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the activity of the previously cleared agent ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) in African and European multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Susceptibility testing was performed on 147 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (107 Escherichia coli and 40 Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 103 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria using Etest according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) clinical breakpoints. Among the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing isolates, 91 Escherichia coli isolates (85%) and 23 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (57.5%) were susceptible towards C/T whereas out of the 103 carbapenemase-producing isolates 102 (99.0%) were C/T-resistant. C/T should be included in susceptibility testing to fairly administer this antimicrobial agent in infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. It may be considered as a therapy option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria once susceptibility to this antimicrobial combination has been confirmed.
In this paper would like to follow the notion of ‘Japan’ and ‘art’ in connection with three significant writings on ‘Japanese painting’ and ‘Japanese art’. The ‘Collection on painting’, completed in 1623 by Kanou Ikkei (1599–1662), is a ‘discourse on painting’, which follows a traditional Chinese genre: writings on painting theory, criticism, principles or classification, also including books on painting subjects, history and biographies of painters. Ikkei in his work, which was completed shortly after the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the 17th century, introduced Chinese painting theory and Chinese painting subjects. Ikkei in his later work, in the ‘Collection of young trees of painting’, completed around 1655 – when Japan already closed its borders –, recorded the biographies of 153 Japanese painters. This work can be considered the first book on ‘Japanese painting’, however at that time the concept of ‘Japanese art’ was not established yet. The Japanese term meaning art was constructed as late as the second half of the 19th century from a translation of a western term. At that time in Japan ‘Westernization’, meaning political, economical, social and cultural modernization took place, and a new nation-state was formed after the opening up of its ports: both the concept of ‘Japan’ and ‘art’ was re-defined. The Histoire de l’Art du Japon published for the 1900 Paris World Exhibition, was the first work in which Japan introduced its own art to the ‘foreign’ world, based on Western concepts, compiled and produced by the Tokyo Imperial Museum under the orders of the Japanese government.
Contrarily to most traditional accounts on the foundation of the Republic, Dionysius describes the passage from the Tarquins’ monarchy to the Republic as a lawful constitutional reform, in which L. Junius Brutus played a pivotal role. In my paper I analyze the speech that Brutus delivers to the Roman patricians to endorse the establishment of a new government in Rome. The new constitution, although remaining essentially monarchical, will keep its autocratic nature concealed from the people. Throughout this paper, I show how Dionysius in his presentation of Brutus picked up elements both related to the senatorial propaganda against M. Junius Brutus — Caesar’s murderer, who claimed descent from L. Brutus and the tyrannicide Ahala — and, at the same time, the character of Augustus’s newly-founded government. This account may thus be regarded as Dionysius’ own elaboration of Augustus’s constitutional reform.
Authors:Vivian J. Szilagyi-Zecchin, Douglas Adamoski, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Mariangela Hungria, Angela C. Ikeda, Vanessa Kava-Cordeiro, Chirlei Glienke and Lygia V. Galli-Terasawa
pathogenicity or with other kinds of environment interaction (endophytes or saprophytes)  .
This study aimed to lead a survey about genetic diversity of fungi associated with leaves from two lineages of maize plants, performing the analyses of