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of vitamin E, we here performed a comprehensive literature survey focusing on recently investigated antibacterial and immune-modulatory effects of vitamin E and its derivates, particularly against MDR bacterial pathogens. Material and methods

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including vitamin D are well known for their health-beneficial properties [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ], a comprehensive literature survey was performed addressing the potential antimicrobial effects of vitamin D with a focus on bacterial

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Rarefaction has long represented a powerful tool for detecting species richness and its variation across spatial scales. Some authors recently reintroduced the mathematical expression for calculating sample-based rarefaction curves. While some of them did not claim any advances, others presented this formula as a new analytical solution. We provide evidence about formulations of the sample-based rarefaction formula older than those recently proposed in ecological literature.

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to the US military, less data on STIs in soldiers are available from other countries in the international scientific literature. In Brazilian soldiers, a confirmed syphilis rate of 1.1% [ 12 ] and an HIV rate of 0.1% [ 13 ] have recently been

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lakes (0.15–0.25%) as well as in the Baltic sea coast (0.8%), whereas the many regions of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea comprise areas with too high levels of salinity (3.5%) [ 32 ]. Table 1. Case reports from the literature of otitis caused by

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In spite of the developments in microbiological methods, blood cultures remain the cornerstone for the diagnosis of bacteraemia. Classically, minimum of two bottles are collected on a routine basis: an aerobic bottle, allowing preferential growth of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and an anaerobic bottle, providing suitable environment for strict anaerobic bacteria. Recent reports have documented a decrease in anaerobic bacteraemias and have questioned the need for routine anaerobic blood cultures. Bacteraemia due to anaerobic organisms occurs in 0.5–12% of blood cultures worldwide; however, recent studies from Europe and the USA presented inconsistent data regarding the prevalence of anaerobic bacteraemias between 1993 and 2006.The aims of this retrospective survey were to determine the prevalence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria and evaluate the importance of anaerobic blood cultures in a university hospital in Szeged, Hungary. We examined the occurrence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria during a 5-year period, from January 2005 to 2009, in order to identify current trends of anaerobic bacteraemias in our university.

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infected with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae . Material and methods The here presented a systematic review of the literature was performed according to the recommendations within the advisory handbook of the Cochrane Foundation [ 25 ] and according to

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currently available literature data on the prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia in adults for physicians and clinical microbiologists and to shed some light on the complexity of this topic nowadays. Anaerobic bacteria in bacteremia The processing of blood

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler and J. K. Jósvai

Literature Bruce , T. J. and Cork , A. ( 2001 ): Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female Helicoverpa armigera to compounds identified in flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta . J. Chem. Ecol. 27 , 1119 – 1131

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Andreas Hahn, Rebecca Hinz, Thomas Meyer, Ulrike Loderstädt, Ottmar Herchenröder, Christian G. Meyer, Norbert Georg Schwarz and Hagen Frickmann

: • prevalence and incidence of HIV among sexual partners, • preventive effects of precaution/protection measures, and • frequency of sexual contacts. Based on the literature quoted above, the following assumptions apply. Recently infected individuals are

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