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Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that have been used in Asian traditional medicine since ancient times. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous and organic extracts from two sea cucumber species, Holothuria edulis Lesson (Holothuriidae) and Stichopus horrens Selenka (Stichopodidae). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH· and β-carotene bleaching assays, while MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of the extracts against two human cancer cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) and esophageal cancer cells (TE1). The results showed that both aqueous and organic extracts of H. edulis were able to scavenge DPH radical (IC50 at 2.04 mg/ml and 8.73 mg/ml, respectively). Aqueous and organic extracts of S. horrens inhibited 79.62% and 46.66% of β-carotene oxidation by linoleate free radical. On the other hand, the organic extract of S. horrens exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects against A549 and TE1 cancer cells giving IC50 at 15.5 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the present study revealed that H. edulis and S. horrens contain promising levels of antioxidant and cytotoxic natural products that might be used for cancer prevention and treatment.

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, O. P., Taylor, P. R. (1996) α-Tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: effects of baseline characteristics and study compliance. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88 , 560

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. , Gleeson , K. , Hughes , J. M. B. , Greenberg , J. , Cataneo , R. N. , Baker , L. , McVay , W. P. ( 1999 ) Volatile organic compounds in breath as markers of lung cancer: a cross-sectional study . Lancet 353 , 1930 – 1933 .

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Nóra Faragó, Ágnes Zvara, Z. Varga, P. Ferdinandy and L. Puskás

Yanaihara, N., Caplen, N., Bowman, E., Seike, M., Kumanoto, K., Yi, M., Stephens, R. M., Okamoto, A., Yokota, J., Tanaka, T. (2006) Unique microRNA molecular profiles in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer Cell 9 , 189

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. (2003) Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer through cyclooxygenase independent pathways. Lung Cancer 40, 33–44. Knox A. J. Cyclooxygenase

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Xiaoyan Liu, Md. Asaduzzaman Khan, Jingliang Cheng, Chunli Wei, Lianmei Zhang and Junjiang Fu

, Y. , Xu , D. ( 2013 ) TRIM28, a new molecular marker predicting metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer . Cancer Epidemiol. 37 , 71 – 78 . 12

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zuzmóflorisztikai felmérése, a zuzmóvegetáció szünfenobiológiai és ökológiai vizsgálata 57 Cislaghi, C. and Nimis, P. L. (1997): Lichens, air pollution and lung cancer

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Andrea Komlósi, Timea Ülkei, Erzsébet Fogarasi, Mircea Croitoru, Ibolya Fülöp, Erzsébet Domokos, Ruxandra Ştefănescu and Erzsébet Varga

. Knekt , P. , Jarvinen , R. , Seppanen , R. , Heliovaara , M. , Teppo , L. ( 1997 ) Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms . Am. J. Epidemiol. 146 , 223 – 230 . 16

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Mádi, Tünde Pusztahelyi, Mária Punyiczki and L. Fésüs

cancer materials by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 15 , 382-390. Characterization of gene expression in clinical lung cancer materials by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

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by inducing apoptosis ( Chen et al., 2014 ; D’angelo et al., 2014 ; Mao et al., 2010 ). However, treatment with cetuximab only showed the desired effect in a small number of cancers, such as rectal and non-small cell lung cancer ( Harari, 2004

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