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. Csernicskó, 2013; Megyeri-Pálffy, 2013; Walkowiak, 2016 ). Government policy affects the official use of proper nouns (the registration of personal names and the official use of place name and institution name), and laws regarding names regulate minority name

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The Bolyai University was the Hungarian half of the current Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj/Kolozsvár, Transylvania. It was an independent Hungarian University until its merger with the Babeş University in 1959. This merged institution is one of the most important centers of higher education in present-day Romania. However, it has a past that can be traced back to the 16th century within the context of the independent Translvania of John Sigismund and Stephen Báthory. It later evolved into a Habsburg institution, then a Hungarian and a Romanian University. Finally, during World War II it operated as two separate institutions with Hungarian and Romanian faculties respectively. The two were merged by the Gheorghiu-Dej communist government in 1959. Ever since, Hungarian minority intellectuals have called for the restoration of the independent Boylai University. The current paper focuses on the independent Bolyai University between 1944 and 1959. It reflects on its role as the premier institution for the recruitment and training of the Hungarian minority’s cultural and educational elite. The paper links the fate of this institution to the communist transformation of Romania and its consequences for the Hungarians of Transylvania.

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Legal regulation of the use of minority languages in Slovakia According to the 1995 Law on the state language, still in effect, the language of all official language use in Slovakia is Slovak. Staff in administrative institutions are required to use

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This paper presents the autonomy movement of Voivodina, what has been achieved so far and why the pre-1990 autonomy could not have been attained. The Hungarians of Voivodina have traditionally been enthusiastic supporters of provincial autonomy despite the fact that Voivodina’s autonomy is not a kind of ethnic autonomy. This issue will be explored through a focus on the case of the Hungarian minority and the ways in which the autonomy of Voivodina benefits ethnic minorities. I will demonstrate that the current powers of provincial institutions have been sufficient to implement minority rights in Voivodina better than in the rest of Serbia, yet were not enough to prevent inter-ethnic incidents. I will also consider why provincial authorities could be better trusted regarding minority protection than the central government, including in dealing with future ethnic violence.

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Summary  

The article discusses several aspects of minority problems. The author starts with analysing the issue of national-ethnic minorities and a minority's position in relation to a majority organized in a national state. Next, conditions for minority discourse (open or concealed) are examined, whose appearance is always determined by the majority; moreover, the ways of consolidating the identity of the majority are also analysed. Further questions are: minority regarded as otherness, strangeness or hostility, but also as a cognitive value (i.e., “mirror” reflecting the majority). Finally, the article raises the issue of becoming accustomed to the minority and the problems where minority and majority converge as a result of intercultural dialogue. In the second part of the article, the author defines research area, methodology, and - as an instance - refers to some of the analytic writings.

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The aim of this paper is to propose a cross-cultural approach to contemporary Hungarian-German minority literature comprising texts written both in German and in Hungarian in order to give an adequate description of the Hungarian-German minority’s literary scene. Also, the significance of this specific minority literature within the context of culture and heritage conservation and its true identity-forming potential can be analysed that way. First results indicate that Hungarian-German literature can help to (re)gain an authentic minority consciousness, but this requires not only a revaluation of the Hungarian-German literary institutions but also the capability to reinvent Hungarian-German literature on the part of the youngest generation of minority writers.

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Basque and Nahuatl are special in that they form certain kinds of islands in the Spanish-speaking world. Both languages differ from Spanish: Basque is not an Indo-European language, its origin is unknown; Nahuatl belongs to the Uto-Aztec language family. Basque is an agglutinating, whereas Nahuatl is an incorporating language. Both live in a close coexistence with Spanish, which is one of the most common spoken languages in the world. In spite of this co-existence with the dominant Spanish language and culture for centuries, Basque-and Nahuatl-speaking minorities have preserved their identity and vitality. This paper intends to give a brief overview of Basque and Nahuatl, linguistic policy, as well as literature in these two languages

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The article is devoted to the investigation of an aspect of the newest developments in Belarusian art and literature. The “inter-life”, the “life on the side” as a special way of orientation of Belarusian people is under scrutiny in a number of cultural chronotopes. In this context it is the comprehension of a Belarusian idea of characters in both literary and real “universes” that makes them “strangers”, a minority in Belarusian cultural zone. The author makes an attempt at a panoramic review of poetry and prose, and she tries to discuss the modern literary works which are most significant to the understanding of paradoxes of a national culture. In this work a number of images or topoi extremely important for modern Belarusian literature are outlined, and some intrinsic features of the collective images of various literary generations are described.

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. The Nationalities Problem in Transylvania, 1867–1940: A Social History of the Romanian Minority under Hungarian Rule, 1867–1918 and of the Hungarian Minority under Romanian Rule, 1918–1940 . Boulder, Colorado: Atlantic Research and Publications, 1992

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The author introduces the problem of identity and bilingualism in the linguistic image of Slovaks living in Hungary with the help of linguistic material collected among Slovaks in Hungary. Starting from statements of Janusz Bańczerowski’s monograph on the linguistic image of the world, this paper demonstrates the outward forms of the following relations: non-verbal communication, the cognitive function of language as well as the scientific and cultural image of the world as the components of the second reality, the mechanisms of connecting words. Especially the oldest elements of the world concept of Slovaks living in Hungary serve as an interesting lesson, reflecting the above-mentioned relations.

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