The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus — a quarantine pest — has been monitored since 2003 in Hungary. The present paper gives a short review of the monitoring/survey system and the results obtained.
A Serbian government introduced a labeling system for products which contained genetically modified organisms (GMO) with threshold of 0.1% for grain and 0.9% for food and feed.In order to detect the presence of GM maize in the Serbian market, a triplex PCR was applied to maize grains and processed maize samples. In total 145 samples, 125 samples of maize seed and 25 processed maize were analysed in tree years period. The number of positive samples varied from 12% in 2006 year, to 14.5% in 2008. The estimated amounts of GM maize using Real Time PCR in 17 samples ranged between 0.1% and 0.9%, for most of them 0.2% or 0.3%. In two maize seed samples GMO content was higer than >0.9%, in 2006. Obtained results showed that maize seed has been contaminated with GM seed but in most cases under labeling treshold.Monitoring for transgenic crop plants is necessary, especially in cases, like in Serbia, when the crop has not been approved for release into the environment.
Authors:A. P. Glinushkin, O. O. Beloshapkina, A. A. Solovykh, G. V. Sudarenkov, and J. Molnár
The paper presents the results of a long-term monitoring of bacterial diseases of wheat in the steppe zone of the Southern Ural. A clear domination of the genus Xanthomonas over the genus Pseudomonas has been revealed (60 and 11% of the total samples collected, respectively). The frequency of a winter wheat infection with these two pathogens exceeded that of the spring wheat. The field phytosanitary assessment resulted in the observation of the earlier unknown manifestation of the Xanthomonas infection called as tip bacteriosis.
The frequency of wheat infection with Xanthomonas sp. almost did not depend on the relief type, observation period, and sowing date, though the frequency of infection observed for the northern slope and lowland clearly exceeded those observed for other relief types. The frequency of infection with Pseudomonas sp. clearly depended on the sowing date and local relief type reaching the maximum at the lowlands (19–27%), so this relief type can be considered as a “signal” point for the early diagnostics of this pathogen.
Authors:B. Hussain, A. R. War, S. A. Ganie, and S. Bilal
monitoring traps targeting both species . Canadian Entomologist 137 , 615 – 619 .
Granett , J. ( 1974 ): Estimation of male mating potential of gypsy moths with disparlure baited traps . Environ. Entomol. 3 , 383 – 385 .
Hussain , B. , Ahmad
Authors:O. Wildi, E. Feldmeyer-Christe, S. Ghosh, and N.E. Zimmermann
monitoring forest dynamics and assembly rules. Community Ecology 5: 107-114.
Coenostate descriptors and spatial dependence in vegetation - derived variables in monitoring forest dynamics and assembly rules
., Vitányi, I., Koczor, S., Ladányi, M. and Tóth, M. (2011): Performance of traps baited with pear ester-based lures vs. pheromone baited ones for monitoring codling moth Cydia pomonella L. in Hungary. Acta Phytopathol. et Entomol. Hung. 46, 225