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Abstract  

Microcalorimetry was used for monitoring anaerobic digestion processes of heavily polluted industrial waste waters (from cheese industry, distilleries, yeast plant). Interpreting the thermal power-time curves by HPLC, some sub-processes in batch cultures were tentatively identified as acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic. Processes underlying power-time curves up to 10 h were different for different wastes. In the case of cheese whey and distillery waste it was acidogenesis, in the case of sulfate containing waste - presumably reduction of sulfates. The effect of Biotreat 100 (BimKemi Eesti Ltd.), a preparation for removing H2S from waste water, was observed for these processes.

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embryo to a new plant [ 3 ]. Measurements of water uptake and oxygen consumption (respiration) are nowadays the most accepted methods to monitor the seed germination process [ 3 – 5 ]. In both cases just one of the part processes is investigated

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Abstract  

Methods of monitoring low plutonium concentration in the inner and outer atmosphere are analyzed and compared. It is shown that monitors based on the gross alpha counting of air filters are not sensitive enough to measure reliably plutonium activities below 1 MPC. A spectrometric discontinuously operating monitor using a gridded ionization chamber and a membrane filter having 70 cm2 active area is described. Plutonium activities of the order of 0.01 MPC /1 mBq.m–3/ can be measured by the spectrometer at 1 h sampling and 1 h counting time.

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Abstract  

As part of Canada’s international commitment for the collective defence of allied nations, nuclear submarines from allied nations berth at three approved locations on both east and west coasts of Canada. In the case of any untoward event, a nuclear emergency response (NER) organisation has been established. In addition, regular sampling of the coastal environment is undertaken as the Environmental Radionuclide Monitoring Programme (ERMP). This continuing effort consists of a long-term programme and a visit sub-programme. In the former, samples are ocean sediment, seawater, aquatic plants and sealife; in the latter, samples are seawater taken before, during and after each visit. Samples are collected according to a prescribed schedule and follow a chain of custody to the accredited laboratory in the SLOWPOKE-2 Facility at RMC. Counting and analyses are done by gamma-ray spectroscopy by the Analytical Services Group (ASG) at RMC. With most results below detection limit, the safety of the NPV visits is assured.

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Abstract  

Environmental radiation monitoring in Korea can be categorized as (1) nationwide monitoring program and (2) monitoring program for nuclear facilities. The former is designed to quickly detect any abnormal situation in environmental radioactivity levels. The latter has the objective of evaluating environmental radioactivity levels resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities. This paper describes the two monitoring programs, how they are implemented, items of being measured, analytical techniques, quality control programs and R&D activities associated with the monitoring. Also, some of the latest data obtained by the monitoring programs are introduced.

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Abstract  

Monitoring of the concentration of actinides in process streams and waste materials can be effectively carried out by detecting and measuring their radioactive emissions. Such monitoring techniques lead to more efficient control of the process, and also aid in the minimisation of losses to the waste and better accounting of the nuclear materials. This paper provides an overview of some of the techniques such as on-line alpha monitoring, passive and active neutron assay and gamma counting, and also describes the monitoring systems which have been developed in our laboratory for use in a reprocessing plant.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: B. Coursey, J. Hutchinson, L. Lucas, W. Mann, T. Matsumura, and J. Noyce

Abstract  

The low-level radioactivity laboratory in the Radioactivity Section of the National Bureau of Standards, and its work in producing standards for monitoring in the environment, are described.

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Abstract  

To meet the need for studies of anaerobic microbial and animal cell cultures involving much lower heat effects as compared to aerobic microbial cultures, a bench scale calorimeter, Bio-RCl, has been improved for achieving a higher long-term sensitivity. This newly improved Bio-RCl was used for heat measurement of anaerobic growth of Lactobacillus helveticus. The results showed that the bench-scale calorimetry has powerful potential for on-line monitoring and control of anaerobic bioprocesses as well as fundamental studies, such as stoichiometry, thermodynamics and kinetics of cellular growth.

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Abstract  

Fuel mix monitoring is important for optimum performance of vehicles. A variety of techniques used to monitor fuel mixes have not come into widespread use due to practical difficulties. Gamma attenuation has been found to be a potential technique for petroleum based fuel mix monitoring with certain limitations.

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Abstract  

A tritium monitor based on plastic scintillation sheets is described. The sensitive volume of the scintillation chamber is 0.95 l. The chamber with coincidence electronics has a discrimination capability and permits to detect tritium in the presence of other radionuclides and external gamma-radiation. The monitor characteristics obtained with tritiated air are presented. The monitor sensitivity for tritium in air is 5.6 cpm for each kBq·m−3. The monitoring of tritium in air and water is possible using the instrument described.

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