The quality of two samples (Indian and German mother tincture) of
Linn. prepared from marigold flowers have been evaluated on the basis of homeopathic literature. In addition to non-specific standards, two biomarkers, rutin and quercitin, have been used for microfingerprinting analysis of the samples of mother tincture. The results indicated the total absence of rutin in the Indian mother tincture whereas both rutin and quercitin were present in the German mother tincture. On the basis of these results a ratio calculation was performed. The study will be useful to manufacturers of homeopathic mother tinctures.
The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive
mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed.
The mother-daughter relationships: 47Ca/47Sc; 95Zr/95Nb; 140Ba/140La; 99Mo/99mTc and 115Cd/115mIn are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect
routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47Ti(n,p)47Sc/46Ca(n,γ)47Ca(β−)47Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences.
The concentrations of extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX) in placenta, umbilical
cord and hair of mothers delivering disabled or normal newborns as well as the compositions of EPOCl in three analyzed matrices
were determined by a combination of NAA, gas chromatography and chemical separation. The results indicated that both EOX and
EPOX decreased in the order: hair > umbilical cord > placenta. Organochlorines were the major fraction of organohalogens.
More than 77% of EPOCl were unidentified. High organohalogens exposure may induce adverse health effects, and hair, as a biomonitor
for organohalogens assessment, is more recommendable.
Twenty-seven pairs of head hair from mothers and their new-born infants were collected at the time of delivery in a hospital in Beijing. The total mercury content in the hair samples was determined by INAA. The correlation between mercury content in hair of mothers and their new-born infants has been investigated. In addition, the change of Hg content in pregnant women's hair during their pregnancy was also studied by INAA and SRXRF. The results indicate a significant positive correlation between the mercury content in maternal and infant head hairs (r=+0.862, p<0.001). The average content of Hg in infant and maternal hairs was 0.66±0.31 g/g and 0.59±0.25 g/g, respectively. The infant level exceeded the maternal by 12%. The Hg content in maternal head hair gradually reduced during pregnancy. Further, the methylmercury (Me–Hg) content in 3 maternal hair samples was analyzed by GC(EC). The Me–Hg was in accordance with the total mercury content. Thus a conclusion can be drawn that damage to the infant from Hg occurred in the early stages of pregnancy.
Authors:Yan-Ling Zhao, Jia-Bo Wang, Ping Zhang, Li-Mei Shan, Rui-Sheng Li and Xiao-He Xiao
sapogenins and substituent groups on the mother nucleus skeleton. Rg 1 has the 20(S)-protopanaxtriol type structure and Rb 1 has the 20(S)-protopanaxdiol type structure. The substitute groups of glucopyranoside and hydroxyl on C-3, C-6, and C-20 result in
Authors:O. Akanle, F. Balogun, J. Owa and N. Spyrou
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis were used to determine the concentration of 13 elements in the breast milk collected within the first week of lactation and after morning feed from 16 pre-term mothers and 20 term mothers. The results of the study show that pre-term milk has a significantly higher concentration of Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn while term mothers have a significantly higher concentration of P and Br. No significant differences were, however, found in the mean concentration of Al, Ca, I and Rb. Furthermore, the mean concentration for most of the elements found in the breast milk fall within the range of the concentrations obtained for the commercial infant milk formulae.
Authors:S.M. Nurulain, S. Ojha, S. Dhanasekaran, K. Kuča, N. Nalin, C. Sharma, A. Adem and H. Kalász
Distribution of K027, a hydrophilic, positively charged compound is monitored in the body of pregnant mice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Intraperitoneal injection was done on the 18th day of pregnancy; the plasma and brains of the mother mice, placentae and the fetuses’ brains were dissected following 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min of treatment. Significant incorporation of K027 was found in the placentae and in fetuses’ brains relative to its levels in the mothers’ plasma and brains. This incorporation warns of a possible adjustment of dose of pyridinium aldoxime antidotes in case of pregnancy. Further studies with different gestational periods and animal models are warranted.
Authors:I. Obrusník, O. Skřivánek, M. Umlaufová and V. Hovorka
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been performed on human head hair of newborns and mothers sampled in two areas with a different level of environmental exposure. The group of neonates from the exposed area (polluted by thermal power plants burning brown coal and by chemical industry) has exhibited higher levels of several trace elements in hair, e.g. Se, Zn, Hg and Sb in comparison with the control group. Moreover, the mean concentrations of Se, Hg, Zn and Br in neonate hair have been found to be higher than in mothers hair. Although the study revealed statistically significant differences in the composition of neonate hair sampled in areas with different levels of environmental exposure, the differences are relatively small. Only a thorough long-term study both with environmental and medical observations can prove a direct connection of the elevated levels of some trace elements in neonate hair with the higher frequency of mental diseases of children living in the exposed area.
The interference of excessive bromide intake with iodine metabolism in the rat was studied using 82Br and 131I radionuclides. Mainly lactating rat dams and their pups were used, in addition to adult male rats, in the present studies.
Particularly, the influence of high bromide intake in lactating rat dams on the transfer of iodine and bromide to suckling
young through breast milk was evaluated. The induction of hypothyroid status in the pups by high bromide intake in the mothers
was proved unambiguously. Excessive bromide in lactating rat dams caused a marked decrease in plasma levels of thyroid hormones
both, in the mothers and in their sucklings. The effects of an enhanced bromide intake on the thyroid function in relation
to iodine status in the animals were also followed. Marked goitrogenic and thyrotoxic effects of excessive bromide in adult
rats were significantly enhanced under the conditions of simultaneous iodine deficiency in the experimental animals.