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Abstract  

Margaret Atwood’s Lady Oracle is a novel extremely rich in Gothic resonances, making numerous approaches to the Gothicness of the book possible. My analysis will focus on the roots of protagonist Joan Foster’s fascination with the Gothic. What I intend to argue is that, in contrast with most analyses of the novel, the Gothic is present not only in the form of clichs which Joan (wrongfully) imposes on real people and real situations; in fact, it is not by mere chance that Joan turns to writing Costume Gothics in order to satisfy her desire for romance. The roots of her fascination with the genre lie with the two most influential people of her life: her mother Frances Delacourt and her surrogate mother Aunt Lou who educate her early into the female/maternal legacy of Gothic thinking which manifests itself in Joan’s views on all aspects of life: problems of selfhood, personal relationships as well as personal aspirations. Moreover, the fact that the Gothic permeates the lives and thoughts of all the significant female characters of the novel indicates that female existence as a whole is presented by Atwood as essentially and inevitably Gothic. I will pursue this line of argument by first discussing the significance of the two mother figures in Joan’s life as well as the process of Joan’s education into patterns of female existence that bear a striking resemblance to such patterns common enough in the Gothic. I will also show how the creative process of writing her Gothic novels as well as her “Lady Oracle” poems contributes to Joan’s understanding that the bonds that connect her with her mother are primarily bonds of love and not of hate as she thought before, and that under the disguise of apparent differences they do share whatever is essential about womanhood. It is through this realization that Joan can set herself free from the past – by coming to terms with it rather than discarding it – and may, thus, actually start working on her present.

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In his youth Bela III, king of Hungary (1172-1196) lived in Constantinople as the betrothed of the emperor Manuel Comnenus' daughter and was appointed to be heir to the Byzantine throne. There he was called Alexius probably owing to an oracle, according to which Manuel's successor's name would start with the letter alpha. However, when a son - also named Alexius - was born to Manuel, he had him crowned co-emperor and had the betrothal of Bela and Maria dissolved on the pretext of a ruling of the 1166 Synod of Constantinople, which banned marriage between relations by marrige to the seventh degree. It is this ruling that is referred to in a sentence in Cinnamus, which has been ignored this far because of the assumption that Bela and Maria were related in the eighth degree. As a matter of fact, they were related in the seventh degree by the marriage of the Hungarian king Stephen IV and Maria Comnena, daughter of Isaac Sebastokrator.

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References Cited Boer , J. Z. de - Hale , J. R. - Chanton , J. 2001 New Evidence for the Geological Origins of the Ancient Delphic Oracle (Greece) . Geology XXIX : 707 - 710 . Breitenstein , Thorkild 1971 Hésiode et

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The two Augusti and two Caesars of Diocletian's tetrarchy have been commilitones, originating from the Balkanic provinces. They were chosen by Diocletian an the basis of friendship that was corroborated by family connections. Although these connections were changed partly because of invidia, Diocletian achieved a remarkable success through his system which was tightly connected with the possible oracle of a celtic sibyl. She said that Diocletian would became emperor if he slayed the wild boar. As Diocletian killed Flavius Aper (= boar), the oracle came true. The only representation of the boar slaying that relates to Diocletian is an inscribed tegula with such a representaion found in Intercisa.

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Summary

Roman Mithraism has been subject to philosophical interpretations and influences over the years. In this paper, I will present the important case of Mithras as a Demiurge by following the Platonic doctrine of the three Gods and its evolution, and after Plato, in three further phases.

A. Plato in the Timaeus and in the dialogue The Sophist (both written in 360 BC) debated three fundamental divine figures: the Being, who accounts for the early Idea and the source of all the other ideas, as well as the early cause of the world; the Demiurge, who was born from the Being and accounts for the acting Power creating the perceivable world; the Anima Mundi (the Soul of the World or the World Soul), who was born from the other two Gods and is the “mother” shaping all of beings.

B. Later, Middle Platonism (lasted from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD and on which the Chaldean Oracles were based) identified the Being as the First God and the source of every indistinct idea; the Demiurge as the Second God featuring the early Idea in order to create the world; and the Anima Mundi as the unifying principle from which all of organisms are shaped.

C. Finally, in Neoplatonism (lasted from the 3rd century to the 6th century AD and on which the Porphyry's De Antro Nympharum is based) this doctrine was fitted together with Mithraism: Mithras was the Demiurge and the Goddess Hecate was identified with the Anima Mundi.

This paper contributes to the current state of knowledge on this topic with a full detailed analysis of the connected different phases of Platonism in order to reach the identification of Mithras as the Demiurge.

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The Historia Augusta mentions some oracles of Juno Caelestis, the Carthaginian goddess who uttered them shortly before the reigns of Pertinax and Severus. This Juno and her prophecies were imporant to the author of the Historia Augusta mainly because they were concerned with the forthcoming death of Commodus and the coming of Pertinax and Severus.

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: al-Mu’assasa al-Jam′iya li’l-Dirasat wa al-Nashr . I brahim , Mir Mohammed 1997 : A Reconstruction of Social Thought in Islam: A Case Study of Dr. Ali Shariati . Valley Book House . K ramer , Martin 1996 : The Oracle of Hizbullah . In: A

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Press . E nsor , Marisa O. 2012 Child Soldiers and Youth Citizens in South Sudan’s Armed Conflict . Peace Review 24 ( 3 ): 276 – 283 . E vans -P ritchard , Evan Edward 1937 Witchcraft, Oracles andMagic among the Azande . Oxford

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Chinese Oracle of Change . London : Vega . KAWAI Kōzō 川合康三 and KOZEN Hiroshi 興膳宏 1995 . Zui sho keisekishi shōkō 隋書經籍志詳攷 [A thorough investigation of texts and records referred to in the Suíshū ] . Tōkyō : Kyuko shoin . KIESCHNICK , John

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, the Oracle of Delphi and fortune tellers have all examined the spirals of the “palace of viscera:” Spirals also have a symbolic relationship with knowledge: the gods wanted to hide knowledge from man. To achieve knowledge, it was necessary to find a

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