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. Ecological Studies in Cultural Anthropology , 362 – 376 . Garden City, N. Y. : Natural History Press . Bennett , John W. 1975 Ecosystem Analogies in Cultural Ecology . In Polgar , Steven (ed) Population, Ecology and Social Evolution . The Hague

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Bakács, István, 1963. A török hódoltság korának népessége [The Population of the Era of the Turkish Occupation]. In: József Kovacsics, ed. Magyarország történeti demográfiája. Magyarország népessége a

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The inhabitants of the steppes around the Black Sea and the nearby areas of the wooded steppe must be recognised as having played a special role in the events that occurred during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. These populations were known not only by their peculiar living conditions but also various cultural models, even though the pastoral nature of their economy and the continuous movements related to it were of fundamental importance. The steppe was also an extensive link that facilitated contacts with the nomads present beyond the southern course of the Volga and Ural rivers, in the vast territories of the Central Asian zones up to the border with China. Toward the end of Late Antiquity, the ethnic make-up of the inhabitants of those territories changed. The Indo-European nomads were replaced by the groups of Turks-Mongols that arrived in subsequent waves from the Asian steppes. These included the Huns, who in 375 had destroyed the state of the Goths on the Black Sea and, having settled after 420 in the woods and plains crossed by the river Tisza, continued to go beyond the Pannonian limes to strike the areas closer to the border. The intensity of these incursions increased after 434 whenAttila unified the nomadic tribes under his command, creating a vast empire of the steppe whose centre was located between the Tisza and the middle region of the Danube. The Huns also cooperated with the subjugated communities, first and foremost the rest of the Goths, Gepids and other Germans who had remained in their residential areas, but also theAlani and the Jazigs. It was only after the defeat of 451 on the Catalaunian Plains, the failed Italian expedition of 452 and the sudden death of Attila in 453 that the Hun Empire completely fell apart. The final blow was struck on the Nedao River in southern Pannonia by the forces united under the command of the Gepids in 454 or 455. What triggered a new shift of Germanic populations, considered the final phase of the period of the “Great Migrations” of peoples, was the ingress of the Langobards into Italy in 568. This alliance of Germanic tribes had appeared at the beginning of the 6 th century on the shores of the Danube and, taking full advantage of the collapse of that sector of the limes in 526, began to occupy Pannonia. In the face of the danger represented by the Avars, and the new nomads who began to occupy the entire plain crossed by the Tisza, the Langobards decided to abandon Pannonia, leaving it to the Avars on the basis of a peace treaty.

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The paper argues that even in studying genetically disordered populations, taking a cross-linguistic and cross-cultural approach seems to be fruitful. Using data from several languages, including Hungarian, might help to clarify the real nature of some cognitive and linguistic disorders. Data from the longitudinal Hungarian Williams Syndrome Project, which included mainly children between five and eighteen, are presen__

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This paper explores how members of a Romani population in a small Czech town perform individualistic actions that distinguish them from other persons in their families and social circles. After an overview of how these informants achieve cultural compromises in their daily lives that serve to reinforce their agency as mothers in the private sphere, I will present different narrative portions from their life histories that highlight possible examples of individuality — social actions that lead to personal rather than categorical distinctiveness. This paper considers if the experience of individuality is compatible with one’s identification as a Rom and what kind of local contextual factors and macro-level discourses inhibit or favor individualistic action and expression. These questions are examined in conjunction with writings and debates that pertain to Czech(oslovak) Romani sociality and culture. This essay also draws on discussions of individuality from the fields of anthropology, sociology, social psychology and the political sciences.

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One of the fundamental events in the formation of the medieval European continent was the transition to more complex organisational structures, even for the inhabitants of the territories beyond the Roman limes. The historical-social transformation movement of the western European world and the new multiethnic composition of the new Roman-Germanic societies were only two of the consequences of the collapse of the division between the highly-developed Mediterranean world and the areas not directly controlled by Rome where, however, stable socio-economic organisational forms had still developed, involving both the steppe and the Germanic populations. Even if it never was an insuperable boundary for all those who lived in the areas not under Roman control, the limes forever lost that ideological concept of barrier and border between two diverse and opposing worlds. The mechanism that caused such consequences involved very complex processes that, as they occurred, affected the environmental geographic conditions as well as the local traditions and ethnic affinities. The populations that continued to live in the areas beyond the Pannonian border introduced themselves into the stream of cultural transformations that arose in that part of the post-Roman European territories between Late Antiquity and the early medieval centuries. It would still be several centuries before this change would complete its natural cycle. In the end, the tribal societies disappeared and new social and cultural structures arose. This helped to spread new ways of using nature, new standards for social co-existence and a new vision of the world.

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-Period population of Bágyogszovát) . Arrabona 10 ( 1968 ) 79 – 92 . D raveczky 1965 B. D raveczky : Somogyszil-Dögkúti dűlő . RégFüz I/18

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Ózd on the settlement and the population. The population of the ironworks. Manuscript) 4. Nagy Péter: „Ahol a vállalatvezetés volt az úr…” A Rimamurány–Salgótarjáni Vasmű Rt. szociális és jóléti intézményrendszere

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References Commuting . 1983 . Az 1980. évi népszámlálás 33. Az aktív keresők munkahelye és lakóhelye. A naponta ingázók adatai. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal, Budapest (Population census 1980. The

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Empire. For the comparison, the criteria set out by Mufwene's Founder Principle will be used. The Founder Principle determines key ecological factors in the formation of creole vernaculars, such as the founding populations and their proportion to the

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