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The use of gamma rays for the sterilization of pharmaceutical raw materials and dosage forms is an alternative method for sterilization. However, one of the major problems of the radiosterilization is the production of new radiolytic products during the irradiation process. Therefore, the principal problem in radiosterilization is to determine and to characterize these physical and chemical changes originating from high-energy radiation. Parenteral drug delivery systems were prepared and in vitro characterization, biodistribution and treatment studies were done in our previous studies. Drug delivery systems (liposomes, niosomes, lipogelosomes and niogelosomes) encapsulating diclofenac sodium (DFNa) were prepared for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This work complies information about the studies developed in order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied as a sterilization method to DFNa, and the raw materials as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), surfactant I [polyglyceryl-3-cethyl ether (SUR I)], dicethyl phosphate (DCP) and cholesterol (CHOL) that are used to prepare those systems. The raw materials were irradiated with different radiation doses (5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) and physicochemical changes (organoleptic properties pH, UV and melting point), microbiological evaluation [sterility assurance level (SAL), sterility and pyrogen test] and electron spin resonance (ESR) characteristics were studied at normal (25 °C, 60% relative humidity) and accelerated (40 °C, 75% relative humidity) stability test conditions.

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A szárazsó-belégzés a sóbányák egészségre hasznos klímáját reprodukálja mesterséges környezetben. Lényege, hogy a vegytiszta nátrium-klorid-kristályokat 3 µm-nél kisebb átmérőjű szemcsékké őrlik és elporlasztva egy kellemesen hűvös és alacsony relatív páratartalmú szoba levegőjébe fújják, amíg annak koncentrációja 10–30 mg/m3 lesz a szoba levegőjében. A beteg (vagy egészséges) személyek ezt lélegzik be 30–60 percen keresztül, általában kúraszerűen 10–20 egymás utáni alkalommal. A belélegzett só ozmózisos nyomása révén csökkenti a nyálkahártya-ödémát, mérsékli annak gyulladását, hígabbá teszi a váladékot, könnyíti és gyorsítja annak kiürítését (ezáltal a légszennyező anyagok és allergének eltávolítását is), gátolja a baktériumok növekedését, sőt elpusztítja azok egy részét és fokozza a fagocitaaktivitást. Kedvező hatással van a betegek közérzetére (relaxációs hatású), megelőzi vagy legalább ritkábbá teszi a légúti gyulladásokat, sőt a kóros légzésfunkciós értékeket is javítja. Jelentősen mérsékli a hörgő-hiperreaktivitás mértékét, ami a gyulladás csökkenésére utal. Nem csupán az alsó légúti gyulladások kezelésére alkalmas, hanem a heveny és idült felső légútiakéra is. Kedvező hatása néhány idült bőrbetegségben (például atopiás dermatitis, psoriasis, pyoderma) is bizonyított. E kezelés (Indisó néven) orvosi ellenőrzés mellett Magyarországon is hozzáférhető. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(41), 1643–1652.

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. The chickens were exposed to heat challenge twice: on day 19 (31 °C, 83% relative humidity, RH/8 h, the heat index was 42 °C) and on day 35 (32 °C, 82% RH/10 h, the heat index was 42 °C). Body weight The birds were weighed individually every week. Body

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Lydia Gil, S. Saura, Arantxa Echegaray, Felisa Martinez, I. de Blas, A. Akourki, Noelia Gonzalez, E. Espinosa, and A. Josa

The present study evaluated the effect of supplementing the medium used to mature equine oocytes in vitro with oestrous mare serum (EMS) or horse follicular fluid (HFF). To this end, 144 ovaries were obtained from mares aged 16-21 months and transported to the laboratory in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS) at 30°C. Oocytes were harvested from the ovaries by slicing, and then selected for in vitro maturation (IVM) according to the number of cumulus cell layers and the characteristics of the cytoplasm. The selected oocytes were washed three times in TCM199 medium plus HEPES (TCM-199H) or in the same medium plus glutamine (TCM-199G), then matured in vitro in six study groups established according to the in vitro maturation (IVM) treatment to see possible interactions between HEPES and glutamine on other supplements: Ten percent EMS was added to two of these media (TCM-199H+EMS and TCM-199G+EMS) and 10% HFF was added to the media in two other groups (TCM-199H+HFF and TCM-199G+HFF). IVM was performed at 38.5°C for 40 h in a controlled atmosphere (5% CO2, 95% relative humidity). The findings indicate that the presence of EMS or HFF in the TCM-199H medium gives rise to the best results in terms of the proportions of oocytes reaching maturity (37.7% and 36.8%, respectively). The values obtained with EMS and HFF were statistically similar to each other but differed from the other treatments. The media containing glutamine led to the highest proportions of degenerated oocytes.

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., 2011 ), the most affected animals were young calves and the average relative humidity recorded in the month of disease onset was 72.9%. Although mortality is nearly 100% when HS is first introduced in an area ( De Alwis, 1992 ), in this study both

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-Dawley virgin rat dams (Charles River Laboratories, Prague, Czech Republic) were mated at 10 weeks of age and individually housed in plexiglass cages in a temperature-controlled environment of 22 ± 2 °C with a relative humidity of 55 ± 10% and 12 h light

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Branislav Kureljušić, Božidar Savić, Vesna Milićević, Nemanja Jezdimirović, Oliver Radanović, Jadranka Žutić, and Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

85%, whereas ammonia concentration from 1.4 to 4 ppm. The recommended relative humidity level in swine production facilities is between 60 and 80%, whereas the most commonly recommended threshold level for ammonia is 20 ppm. Anamnestic and clinical

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Katiuska Satué, Esterina Fazio, Cristina Cravana, Marco Quartuccio, Maria Marcilla, and Pietro Medica

fresh water. The study was performed in the northern hemisphere in the months of April and May 2018 of the breeding season, to ensure the cyclic activity of the ovaries. The environmental temperature ranged between 27 and 31 °C, with 40–60% of relative

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Physiology International
Authors: Leyla Semiha Şen, Zarife Nigar Özdemir Kumral, Gülsün Memi, Feriha Ercan, Berrak C. Yeğen, and Cumhur Yeğen

supplied by the Marmara University (MU) Animal Center (DEHAMER) and were housed in an air-conditioned room with 12-h light and dark cycles, where the temperature (22 ± 2 °C) and relative humidity (65–70%) were kept constant. Rats were fed with standard

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Bülent Bayraktar, Emre Tekce, Hacer Kaya, Ahmet Burak Gürbüz, Ebubekir Dirican, Serol Korkmaz, Banu Atalay, and Ufuk Ülker

32–33 °C on days 0–2 then kept steady at 27–28 °C on days 3–7. From the 8th day, the stressed groups were continuously exposed to HS at 37 °C and 75–85% relative humidity, while the stress-free control groups were held at 25 °C and 55–60% humidity

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