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This study explores the representations of Ottoman interpreters in a number of selected paintings and engravings by western artists. The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyse the position of the interpreter as a political and diplomatic figure within the pictorial composition, basing itself in historical facts about Ottoman interpreters. I will start the paper by a brief discussion on the history of the interpreting profession in the Ottoman Empire and then move on to exploring the paintings where I will touch upon issues such as the traditional costumes, postures and physical positions of interpreters. I will question whether these elements were uniform in different representations by different artists or whether they displayed certain variances.

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flowering of formal phonological theory, which both provoked the rehabilitation of syllable structure in mainstream phonological theory, and led to the introduction of novel hierarchical organisation in autosegmental representations both below and above the

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Eucharistic references in the representations of saints constitute a relatively unexplored segment within the iconography of the Holy Sacrament. This article analyses a number of hagiographical compositions from the Late Gothic wall paintings of Transylvania, which seem to carry eucharistic connotations, either through explicit references to the Sacrament (in the form of a monstrance, a chalice or host-shaped bread) or through subtler allusions to the sacrificial Body of Christ present in the Eucharist. The fact that most of these images are located in the sanctuaries of churches and are typically associated with other, more straightforward eucharistic imagery suggests conscious choices on the part of the inventors of the iconographic programs in adapting the subject matter of the wall paintings to the function of the given liturgical space.

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Abstract  

During the last decade or so, the literary writings that portray the lives of the wolves and their relationship with the humans sprouted and prospered in China. These wolf writings all give very vivid and appealing portraits of wolves, their wild existence, their character, their relationship with men, and their role in the ecosystem. They have shaped our understanding of and attitudes towards animals and nature, which is of great value to the ongoing building of ecological civilization in China as well as in the world. In general, the Chinese wolf literature has inevitably been influenced and inspired by the long and rich traditions of the wolf myths and literature in the West, particularly those works of Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other Western writers since the end of the 19th century. With due attention paid to the influence of the Western wolf literature, this essay will mainly analyze the three most important Chinese wolf novels—The Wolf Child, Remembering Wolves and The Wolf Totem, both separately and with reference to one another. It argues that the representations of wolves in them subvert the stereotypical hostile images of wolf in traditional Chinese culture, bring about fresh reflections on the cultural and spiritual symptoms of (post)modernity and globalization, and finally lead to a growing ecological consciousness and the call for balance between humans and nonhumans.

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In recent years the attention of a number of observers has been drawn to an increasingly popular, entirely informal prayer practice in written form. More and more books, visitors’ books and guestbooks are appearing at our shrines for visitors to record requests, prayers and declarations of gratitude, and their pages are filled with individual prayers. They are unusual because they allow us to observe a special communication situation, the written representation of an informal, non-normalised, oral manifestation. The writing often objectifies and even ritualises this special act of prayer. The guestbooks of shrines and parish churches offer everyone access to a forum for these exceptional occasions. In this article I would like to present such guestbooks, collected at Hungarian shrines, and the conclusions drawn from their comparative analysis.

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The range of violence comprises severe physical abuse and different methods of mental torture as well as social discrimination. Beside the traumas themselves, these acts also burden the victims with shame. Finnish writer Sofi Oksanen (born 1977) discusses these issues in her works. As a writer, Oksanen is very sensitive to social issues, discrimination and the unfairness of history. Most of her characters suffer from the shame of inferiority caused by physical or mental violence. Oksanen analyzes the influence of shame in our lives, and her characters demonstrate several different responses to the feeling.

Eyesight and our looks play an important role in recognizing or hiding the humiliating episodes of our past. Appearance often reflects all our inner struggles and represents our mental state, wherefore a given individual’s manner of personal care and habits of shaping the body reveal a great deal about the person. Personal and beauty care come up in different ways in Oksanen’s novels and have varying symbolic meanings, but they have at least one thing in common: they are related to creating a false identity, one which is more acceptable for those in the surrounding environment.

This paper analyzes the mechanism of shame connected to the feeling of inferiority, concentrating on four of Oksanen’s novels (Stalin’s Cows, Baby Jane, Purge and When the Doves Disappeared). Although violence can lead to mental disorders and the shame of inferiority also belongs to the domain of emotions, the paper focuses on the physical consequences of the victims’ mental state, which can vary from severe physical disorders to everyday personal grooming or beauty care.

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In this article I will point out to the role of music in the Day of Youth, the most important state holiday in the socialist Yugoslavia. I will show that in the afterwar period, the music for the jamboree was selected in order to highlight certain important events from the People’s Liberation Struggle, so that it consisted in the combination of traditional, partisan and folk songs, and it was regularly related to Tito himself. After Tito’s death in 1980, the Day of Youth was in crisis, together with the country, but despite that, the celebrations were organized almost until the very end of Yugoslavia. The celebrations after Tito were marked by a tendency to overcome the crisis of the ideology of “brotherhood and unity,” so that it was concluded that the Day of Youth should be modernized. I argue that the music played a crucial role in the process, leading to the promulgation of rock and roll as “our future,” i.e. the future of the young. The collectivities that were represented in the jamboree also changed in accordance with the music, so that those in the 1980s included casual rock and roll dancing instead of traditional round dances.

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