Motion of particles with air resistance (e.g. horizontal and inclined throwing) plays an important role in many technological processes in agriculture, wood industry and several other fields. Although, the basic equation of motion of this problem is well known, however, the solutions for practical applications are not sufficient. In this article working diagrams were developed for quick estimation of the throwing distance and the terminal velocity. Approximate solution procedures are presented in closed form with acceptable error. The working diagrams provide with arbitrary initial conditions in dimensionless form of general validity.
The EU Chocolate Directive 2000/36/EC allows the use of the vegetable fats CBEs and CBIs up to a maximum of 5% in chocolate. Manufacturers and users must know how this has an influence on the properties of chocolate. The objective of the work reported here was to find out by systematic investigations, which effect CBEs/CBIs have on the quality parameters, hardness and heat resistance of chocolate. The influence on the hardness was tested also under extreme practical storage conditions. The quality monitoring was performed up to one year. For the determination of the heat resistance the penetrometric method was used in the temperature range 25–32 °C measuring the maximum loading force, occurring during the penetration of a cylindrical probe of 2 mm diameter with 4 mm penetration. The correlation between the average maximum loading force, relevant to the hardness of chocolate, and the temperature can be described by a linear regression at 95% confidence level. Statistical analyses (correlation analysis, residual analysis, Durban-Watson statistic) showed that it is possible to define the heat resistance of solid chocolate in the temperature range of 25–32 °C by the slope and the ordinate intercept of the regression line of the loading force vs. temperature for given parameters (composition, storage, experimental layout, etc.). For the determination of the hardness of the chocolate also the penetrometric method was used to measure the maximum loading force occurring during the penetration of a needle probe with 2 mm deformation. The hardness of the chocolate samples determined with the penetrometric method and statistical analysis (One-Way, Two-Way Analysis of Variance, Dunnett’s comparisons) is significantly dependent on the composition and storage conditions, where the storage conditions are the dominant factor. The results show that the differences in hardness between the chocolate samples with CBE/CBI and those without CBE/CBI, both stored in the cellar (cold storage), are marginal. After one week of storage the sample with CBI has nearly the same hardness as the standard sample with CB, whereas the sample with CBE was slightly softer. The differences are slightly clearer for the northern storage room (moderate temperature) and for the southern room (warm temperature). After a definite storage time the hardness of all samples increased and was in the case of the southern storage room (warm temperature) up to twice as high. The quality monitoring up to one year showed that the reason for this increase in hardness is not a special storage time but the increasing temperatures with the beginning of the warm season and the cyclic change of the temperature during day and night. So an explanation for this unexpected increase in hardness can be a thermocyclic hardening of the chocolate samples under these storage conditions.
Authors:Eszter Vozáry, Kinga Ignácz, and Bíborka Gillay
approached with an electrical circuit model consisting of serial connection of a resistance and two distributed elements ( Grimnes and Martinsen, 2008 ): (1) R 0 + R 1 1 + ( i ω τ 1 ) ψ 1 + R 2 1 + ( i ω τ 2 ) ψ 2 , where R 0 , R 1 and R 2 are
. (1995) Wear resistance tests of farm-machines materials. (in Hungarian).
Járművek és Mezőgazdasági Gépek
. Budapest, 1995/2/64–67.
Birkás, M., Dexter, A. R., Kalmár, T. Bottlik, L. (2006) Soil quality — soil
During our research
concentrations of quality wines were investigated by membrane separation on
nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes. The practicability of the process
was examined by experimental design in our laboratory experiments. The effects
of the operating parameters on the efficiency of the methods were analyzed,
from which the conclusion was drawn that the sugar content of the wines affects
the filtrate capacity considerably. This phenomenon was attributed to the
resistance appearing during the process. This resistance is the osmotic
pressure which is faced with the driving force. By the mathematical modeling of
the process - building up experimental and empirical relations - the answer for
the practical implementing was searched for. Our concrete model concentrates on
the connection between the changing of the osmotic pressure and the retained
molecules by the membrane. Monitoring of this connection is a primary criterion
when planning the optimal development of the process.
The effects of mechanical perforation densities by extracting soil cores through an aerator Vertidrain with a working width of 1.6 m and equipped with hollow tines spaced of 65 mm, were studied on a sandy soil of a grassy sward in the Golf Course El Kantaoui in Sousse (Tunisia). The mechanical aeration was performed at two densities: 250 and 350 holes/m2. The cone penetration resistance and soil water infiltration were measured. These parameters were performed at initial state before aeration (E0) and then on the 10th, 20th and 30th day after aeration. These results showed that perforation density of 350 holes/m2 had a positive effect on the soil by reducing its cone resistance to penetration compared to the initial state (Rp = 14.8 daN/cm2). At 5 cm depth the decrease in resistance to penetration was 34% and 43% on the 10th and 20th day after aeration, respectively. However, on the 30th day after aeration the soil resistance to penetration tended to grow and its value compared to the initial state decreased only by 21 and 26%, respectively, at 5 and 15 cm of depth only by 10% and 9% with 250 holes/m2 density. The soil water infiltration made a good improvement after aeration compared to the initial state. This parameter increased from 4.8 cm/h to 8.3, 10.9 and 13.1 cm/h with 250 holes/m2 density and to 10, 12.9 and 14.8 cm/h with 350 holes/m2 density on the 10th, 20th and 30th day following the aeration.