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Mccrae , R.R., Martin , T.A., Hrebícková , M., Urbánek , T., Boomsama , D.I., Willemsen , G. and Cost , Jr. P.T. (2008): Personality trait similarity between spouses in four cultures. Journal of Personality , 75, 1137

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Learning & Perception
Authors: Alexandra Bendixen, Tamás M. Bőhm, Orsolya Szalárdy, Robert Mill, Susan L. Denham, and István Winkler

Sound sources often emit trains of discrete sounds, such as a series of footsteps. Previously, two different principles have been suggested for how the human auditory system binds discrete sounds together into perceptual units. The feature similarity principle is based on linking sounds with similar characteristics over time. The predictability principle is based on linking sounds that follow each other in a predictable manner. The present study compared the effects of these two principles. Participants were presented with tone sequences and instructed to continuously indicate whether they perceived a single coherent sequence or two concurrent streams of sound. We investigated the influence of separate manipulations of similarity and predictability on these perceptual reports. Both grouping principles affected perception of the tone sequences, albeit with different characteristics. In particular, results suggest that whereas predictability is only analyzed for the currently perceived sound organization, feature similarity is also analyzed for alternative groupings of sound. Moreover, changing similarity or predictability within an ongoing sound sequence led to markedly different dynamic effects. Taken together, these results provide evidence for different roles of similarity and predictability in auditory scene analysis, suggesting that forming auditory stream representations and competition between alternatives rely on partly different processes.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sam-Wook Choi, Hyun Kim, Ga-Young Kim, Yeongju Jeon, Su Park, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Jung, Bo Sohn, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim

Leeman, R. F. & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 219 (2), 469

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A rokonok, barátok, csoporttársak közötti önzetlenség evolúciós elméletei és kutatási eredményei mára a pszichológiai kézikönyvek standard részeit alkotják. Az idegenek iránti támogatás –amely fajunk egyedülálló sajátossága –azonban sokáig nem kapott megfelelő magyarázatot a darwini alapokon álló pszichológiában. Miért vagyunk nagylelkűek azokkal szemben, akik nem a rokonaink, akiktől nem várhatunk viszonzást, sőt akikkel sohasem találkoztunk és feltehetőleg nem is fogunk? Ugyanaz a kérdés másképpen: miért olyan általánosak és erőteljesek valamennyi kultúrában az együttműködés és szolidaritás normái__

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arguing for its similarity to addiction, researchers often mention appetitive mechanisms and craving for sexual activity ( Gola & Draps, 2018 ; Gola et al., 2017; Klucken, Wehrum-Osinsky, Schweckendiek, Kruse, & Stark, 2016; Kowalewska et al., 2018; Voon

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addictive ( Meerkerk, Eijnden, & Garretsen, 2006 ). There has been a long debate about whether cybersex addiction should be defined as a behavioral addiction (e.g., de Alarcón et al., 2019 ). However, there is increasing evidence regarding the similarity

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Martina Goslar, Max Leibetseder, Hannah M. Muench, Stefan G. Hofmann, and Anton-Rupert Laireiter

Recent research has identified similarities between substance use disorders (SUDs) and behavioral addictions (BAs; e.g., Grant, Potenza, Weinstein, & Gorelick, 2010 ). Accordingly, non-substance related behavioral addictions had been defined

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This commentary supports the argument that there is an increasing tendency to subsume a range of excessive daily behaviors under the rubric of non-substance related behavioral addictions. The concept of behavioral addictions gained momentum in the 1990s with the recent reclassification of pathological gambling as a non-substance behavioral addiction in DSM-5 accelerating this process. The propensity to label a host of normal behaviors carried out to excess as pathological based simply on phenomenological similarities to addictive disorders will ultimately undermine the credibility of behavioral addiction as a valid construct. From a scientific perspective, anecdotal observation followed by the subsequent modification of the wording of existing substance dependence diagnostic criteria, and then searching for biopsychosocial correlates to justify classifying an excessive behavior resulting in harm as an addiction falls far short of accepted taxonomic standards. The differentiation of normal from non-substance addictive behaviors ought to be grounded in sound conceptual, theoretical and empirical methodologies. There are other more parsimonious explanations accounting for such behaviors. Consideration needs to be given to excluding the possibility that excessive behaviors are due to situational environmental/social factors, or symptomatic of an existing affective disorder such as depression or personality traits characteristic of cluster B personalities (namely, impulsivity) rather than the advocating for the establishment of new disorders.

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Background and Aims

Most people use the Internet in a functional way to achieve certain goals and needs. However, there is an increasing number of people who experience negative consequences like loss of control and distress based on an excessive use of the Internet and its specific online applications. Some approaches postulate similarities with behavioral addictions as well as substance dependencies. They differentiate between a generalized and a specific Internet addiction, such as the pathological use of social networking sites (SIA–SNS). Prior studies particularly identified the use of applications, personal characteristics, and psychopathological symptoms as significant predictors for the development and maintenance of this phenomenon. So far, it remains unclear how psychopathological symptoms like depression and social anxiety interact with individual expectancies of Internet use and capabilities of handling the Internet, summarized as Internet literacy.

Methods

The current study (N = 334) investigated the interaction of these components in a structural equation model.

Results

The results indicate that the effects of depression and social anxiety on SIA–SNS were mediated by Internet use expectancies and self-regulation.

Discussion

Thus, Internet use expectancies seem to be crucial for SIA–SNS, which is in line with prior models.

Conclusions

SNS use may be reinforced by experienced gratification and relief from negative feelings. Individual competences in handling the Internet may be preventive for the development of SIA–SNS.

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Background and aims

The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a group of young Italians who self-injure. In examining the characteristics, specific attention was given to the feelings and personal experiences associated with episodes of NSSI.

Methods

The research involved 362 young people (332 females and 30 males) who completed an online survey hosted on a website specifically geared to supporting young people who self-injure. This methodology enabled involving a diverse population of young people who self-injure, thus going beyond specific groups or clinical samples.

Results

Results show that the majority of respondents start injuring themselves between the ages of 12 and 16 years (72.38%, n = 262). Cutting was the most common self-injuring method (81.77%, n = 297). The 79.83% (n = 289) of respondents had not sought professional help for their wounds, preferring to care for their wounds on their own. More than half of the respondents (56.91%, n = 206) claimed to have experienced anxiety-spectrum disorders and almost half of the respondents (41.71%, n = 151) claimed to have experienced some type of eating disorder.

Discussion and Conclusions

Many similarities have been found between this study and the literature, thus strengthening the hypothesis that NSSI is becoming a universal issue with similar characteristics across countries.

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