Authors:Dávid Nagy, Tamás Mihálydeák, and László Aszalós
similar, and the objects from different groups are dissimilar. This defines an equivalence relation. The similarity is usually based on the distance of the objects. However, sometimes only categorical data are given where distance is meaningless. For
Authors:A. Torbica, D. Horvat, D. Živančev, M. Belović, G. Šimić, D. Magdić, N. Đukić, and K. Dvojković
The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of RP-HPLC (Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and LOC (Lab-on-Chip) methods for wheat gluten protein quantification regarding clustering of wheat cultivars according to the genetic similarity (HMW-GS combinations), as well as to explore relations of these two methods to wheat quality parameters. For that purpose, wheat quality parameters (protein content, falling number, wet gluten content, gluten index, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Amylograph), as well as amounts of gliadin and glutenin fractions by RP-HPLC and LOC methods were determined in two different sets of wheat cultivars (Croatian and Serbian). The percentages of gluten proteins and the values of quality parameters were used to characterize the samples by principal component analysis (PCA). Gluten protein quantification performed by method based on the protein fraction separation by molecular weights (LOC) was better for grouping of genetically similar wheat cultivars than quantification of proteins separated by their different solubility in specified solvent gradient (RP-HPLC). LOC method showed higher potential in wheat quality prediction.
Authors:Taťána Fenclová, Zdeněk Jonšta, Miroslav Hnatko, Josef Kraxner, and Pavol Šajgalík
their similarity to human bone, for large active surface to join the tissue with bioceramic and for binding the bioactive substance to the surface of the microspheres. The pores in the microspheres (>100 μm) are not only formed by gas, which is produced
Authors:T. Sopcak, L. Medvecky, T. Zagyva, M. Dzupon, J. Balko, K. Balázsi, and C. Balázsi
similarity with natural bone [ 4 ]. The classical methods for Hap preparation include wet chemical processes as well as solid state procedure using precursors either of synthetic and biological nature [ 5 – 8 ]. However, Hap in pure form has poor mechanical
Energy efficiency measures and the enhancement of investments in renewable energy play important role in sustainable development and lead to advancement of competitiveness of national economies. The increase of renewable energy consumption and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are significant stages of the process to achieve the main purposes of sustainable development at global and national levels.
In this paper the change in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and in the greenhouse gas emissions intensity in Hungary between 2004 and 2011 is investigated.
It is demonstrated that the share of the renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption increased during the examined period. The measure and the tendency of the change in Hungary show similarity to the EU 27 average.
The greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption decreased in Hungary between 2004 and 2011. According to the data, the decrease is the second largest among the European Member States.
Authors:N. Boros, A. Petrányi, D. Kocsis, and I. Bodnár
The recycling of greywater for non-potable water applications, such as toilet flushing or irrigation, is a potential solution to reduce potable water consumption. To estimate the quality of raw greywater samples, we measured several physical, chemical and biological parameters. We used Hygiene Monitor test kits to determine microbiological presence in the samples. The greywater samples showed a high variability for all the measured parameters. In general, we found that greywater sources had lightly alkaline character with a considerable inorganic and organic content. About half of the analyzed samples can be characterized as highly contaminated water source with organic substance. The average BOD5 and DOC values of greywater samples were 429 ± 410 mg l−1 and 341 ± 348 mg l−1. The samples showed high similarity concerning the total plate counts parameter (range from 5 to 6 log10 cfu ml−1). Among the three greywater sources, the samples from dish sources showed the lowest coliform content (3.9 log10 cfu ml−1) and the bath samples were contaminated with coliforms to the highest degree (4.9 log10 cfu ml−1). The results of E. coli contamination tests proved that all greywater sources can be contaminated with pathogen bacteria, consequently the treatment before reuse of greywater is indispensable.
Authors:Brigitta Tóth, Ádám Boncz, Bálint File, István Winkler, and Márk Molnár
Összefoglalás. A hálózatkutatás idegtudományi alkalmazása áttörő eredményt
hozott a humán kogníció és a neurális rendszerek közötti kapcsolat megértésében. Jelen
tanulmány célja a neurális hálózatok néhány kutatási területét mutatja be a laborunkban
végzett vizsgálatok eredményein keresztül. Bemutatjuk az agyi aktivitás mérésének és az
agyi területek közötti kommunikációs hálózatok modellezésének technikáját. Majd kiemelünk
két kutatási terület: 1) az agyi hálózatok életkori változásainak vizsgálatát, ami választ
ad arra, hogy hogyan öregszik az emberi agy; 2) az emberi agyak közötti hálózat
modelljének vizsgálatát, amely a hatékony emberi kommunikáció idegrendszeri mechanizmusait
próbálja feltárni. Tárgyaljuk a humán kommunikációra képes mesterséges intelligencia
fejlesztésének lehetőségét is. Végül kitérünk az agyi hálózatok kutatásának
Summary. The human brain consists of 100 billion neurons connected by about
100 trillion synapses, which are hierarchically organized in different scales in
anatomical space and time. Thus, it sounds reasonable to assume that the brain is the most
complex network known to man. Network science applications in neuroscience are aimed to
understand how human feeling, thought and behavior could emerge from this biological
system of the brain. The present review focuses on the recent results and the future of
network neuroscience. The following topics will be discussed:
Modeling the network of communication among brain areas. Neural activity
can be recorded with high temporal precision using electroencephalography (EEG).
Communication strength between brain regions then might be estimated by calculating
mathematical synchronization indices between source localized EEG time series. Finally,
graph theoretical models can describe the relationship between system elements (i.e.
efficiency of communication or centrality of an element).
How does the brain age? While for a newborn the high plasticity of the
brain provides the foundation of cognitive development, cognition declines with advanced
age due to so far largely unknown neural mechanisms. In one of our studies, we
demonstrated that there is a correlation between the anatomical development of the brain
(at prenatal age) and its network topology. Specifically, the more developed the baby’s
brain, the more functionally specialized/modular it was. In another study we found that in
older adults, when compared to young adults, connectivity within modules of their brain
network is decreased, with an associated decline in their short-term memory capacity.
Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment patients (early stage of Alzheimer) were characterized
with a significantly lower level of connectivity between their brain modules than the
Human communication via shared network of brain activity. In another
study we recorded the brain activity of a speaker and multiple listeners. We investigated
the brain network similarity across listeners and between the speaker and listeners. We
found that brain activity was significantly correlated among listeners, providing evidence
for the fact that the same content is processed via similar neural computations within
different brains. The data also suggested that the more the brain activity synchronizes
the more the mental state of the individuals overlap. We also found significantly
synchronized brain activity between speaker and listeners. Specifically 1) listeners’
brain activity within the speech processing cortices was synchronized to speaker’s brain
activity with a time lag, indicating that listeners’ speech comprehension processes
replicated the speaker’s speech production processes; and 2) listeners’ frontal cortical
activity was synchronized to speaker’s later brain activity, that is, listeners preceded
the speaker, indicating that speech content is predicted by the listeners based on the
Future challenges. Future research could target artificial intelligence
development that is capable of human-like communication. To achieve this, the simultaneous
recording of brain activity from listener and speaker is needed together with efficiency
of the communication. These data could be then modelled via AI to detect biomarkers of
communication efficiency. In general, neurotechnology has been rapidly developing within
and outside of research and in clinical fields thus it is time for re-conceptualizing the
corresponding human right law in order to avoid unwanted consequences of technological
Authors:Attila Vámosi, Levente Czégé, and Imre Kocsis
average acceleration of the vehicles into speed-acceleration bins. The similarity between the SAPD of a candidate driving cycle and the SAPD of the full dataset is another useful indicator of the representativeness. We used the Quality of Fit (QoF) value
Authors:Merzouqi Maria, Sarhrouni El Kebir, and Hammouch Ahmed
] ( Fig. 3 ). Fig.3. Illustration of the relationship between mutual information and entropy (Studholme, 1999) used NMI, Eq. (4) , to measure similarity. This measure proved its reliability on the 3D medical images. It is defined as follows: (4) N M I = H