This paper provides a contemporary perception of stereotypical ideas Czechs have about the Roma culture in the Czech Republic. The location of our research was the Ústí region in northern Bohemia that has the largest Roma population. Moreover, the research presents new faces of stereotypes in naming Roma in the Czech society. We discuss many aspects that provided the highest quantity of significant characteristics on which the ideology of anti-Gypsyism is based.
This article was supported by the Ministry of Culture of theCzechRepublic through institutional financing of the long-term conceptual development of the research institution (the Moravian Museum, MK000094862).
A website is a basic promotional tool of any company – regardless of the field of their activity. Cultural institutions of Central Europe gradually start to recognize the web's indispensability as well as technological base at the core of modern communicative processes. Museums of contemporary art in Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia – each to a different extent – make use of the Internet so as to inform about and promote themselves. The present study of the institutions’ websites conducted by the author presents the content of the websites and discusses what is and what should be presented. Is art really present on the art institutions’ websites?
The concepts lying behind the words “witch” and “magician” have undergone a significant change in the past 60 years. While keeping much of the traditional connotations, the labels have attained new meanings in the new context of contemporary pagan and magical practice, which correspond with the actual needs, lifestyles and lifeviews of their contemporary bearers. The goal of the paper is first to describe the traditional concepts lying behind the terms “witch” and “magician” and second, to trace, capture and describe the transformation of these concepts in the last half of a century. The fieldwork data used in the paper come from my long-term research of neo-paganism and magical practice in the Czech Republic.
The experience of socialism and its legacies in Eastern Europe created a specific context for artists’ engagement with animals and their approach to the natural world. The blueprint for building the socialist utopia had spared little concern for the environmental consequences of breakneck industrialisation, with rivers rerouted, landscapes devastated and nature viewed purely as a material resource. The welfare and interests of animals were far down the list of priorities in a system which valorised the proletariat and demanded sacrifices for the glorification of the socialist state. The cruel fate of the world’s first space traveller, Laika the dog, who was sent on a one-way mission into orbit in 1957, was symbolic of official attitudes towards animals under socialism, as well as providing a focus for feelings of empathy from human subjects that felt equally oppressed.
It was in the 1960s that live animals first entered artistic practice through happenings and performances, which occurred in parallel with the neo-avant-garde exodus from studios and galleries to enter public space and natural environments and was part of the utopian drive to abolish the distinction between art and life. However, it was only after the changes brought by the countercultural orientation of 1968, with the emergence of the women’s liberation movement, a new concern for human rights and the rise of ecological thinking that neo-avant-garde artists began to conceptually address the position of the animal. Birds turned out to be particularly appropriate living metaphors to convey the suppressed desire for freedom, as well as offering a way to explore the ethical and environmental dimensions of relations between the human and the animal.
This paper explores changing attitudes and approaches to animals in East European art of the neo-avant-garde during the Long Sixties through an examination of key works by István Harasztÿ from Hungary, Slovak artist Peter Bartoš and Petr Štembera from the Czech Republic, while considering the impact of new thinking about the natural environment across the porous ideological borders of the Cold War. Engagements with the animal were most frequently conceived in metaphorical terms as a means to talk about the human condition which, due to the specific social, historical and political circumstances of the Eastern Bloc, was particularly true of artists living under socialism.
Milan Kundera a fait son entrée sur la scène littéraire européenne en chevauchant l’âne du malentendu. Le malentendu n’est
pas seulement un thème fondamental dans son œuvre, il plane également sur la réceptions de son œuvre à la fois en République
Tchèque et à l’étranger. La publication en France et en Grande Bretagne de son premier roman, La plaisanterie (1967), coïncida avec l’invasion russe de la Tchécoslovaquie. Les circonstances politiques, la préface rédigée par Aragon
pour l’édition française et les choix éditoriaux fait par l’éditeur britannique déterminèrent la réception de Kundera, en
soulignant la nature politique du roman, en renforçant le stéréotype d’un « auteur de l’Europe de l’est ». Depuis Kundera
n’a cessé d’essayer de corriger cette image erronée, notamment dans ses paratextes. Paradoxalement les tentatives de s’expliquer
ont eu pour effet de renforcer les préjugés : de nombreux critiques considèrent que les interventions de Kundera constituent
une violation de leurs droits de critique et q u’elles imposent une seule lecture correcte, à savoir celle homologuée par
l’auteur. En analysant les relations complexes entre La plaisanterie, ses paratextes et sa réception, je montre que tel n’est pas le cas et que le malentendu qui entoure l’œuvre est un résultat
quasi inévitable du fonctionnement du champ littéraire en Occident.
Authors:Katalin T. Biró, Judit Regenye, Sándor Puszta and Edit Thamóné Bozsó
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