In the period between 1918 and 1945 military surveys or revision of previous maps were undertaken in the newly established Czechoslovak state. From this period, four sets of military topographic maps can be distinguished. The first set is represented by revised maps of the Third Austrian Military Survey. The revision was conducted between 1921 and 1954 and the map sheets are at scale 1:25 000. The second set is the maps of provisional military survey from 1923 to 1933 at scales 1:10 000 and 1:20 000. They were drawn in the Beneš’s normal conformal conic projection and were completed only for a few percents of the state territory. The third set includes maps from 1934–1938, when a definite military survey was carried out. These 1:20 000 maps were completed using the Křovák’s oblique conformal conic projection, covering again only a part of the state territory, in this case almost one tenth of it. Finally, the German maps called “Messtischblätter” (plane table sheets) were created during the German occupation of the Czech lands in the World War II at scale 1:25 000. They were created in the Gauss-Krüger transverse cylindrical projection and covered about 10% of the state territory, mainly in Moravia. All four map sets used the Bessel’s ellipsoid.
Authors:Nestor Oszczypko, Marta Oszczypko-Clowes, Jan Golonka and Michal Krobicki
The Magura Nappe is the innermost tectonic unit of the Western Flysch Carpathians and is linked with the Rheno-Danubian flysch of the Eastern Alps. Toward the east this unit runs as an arc from Austria through the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland, and then narrows in Eastern Slovakia before disappearing east of Uzhhorod (Trans-Carpathian Ukraine). The Magura Nappe is dominated by Paleogene deposits. In the Ukrainian Carpathians, SE of the Latorica River, the position of the Magura Nappe is occupied by the Marmarosh Flysch Zone. Two facies-tectonic units have been distinguished in this zone - the external Vezhany and the internal Monastyrets' units. Both the Magura Nappe and Marmarosh Flysch revealed the same geotectonic position, lithofacies development and a similar diachronic distribution of Eocene/Oligocene facies in the basins. The Vezhany succession could be regarded as the equivalent of the Fore-Magura thrust sheet in Poland, whereas the Monastyrets resembles the Rača development of the Magura Nappe in Poland and Slovakia.
The 1:75 000 scale Special Map (SM75) series of the Third Military Survey is analysed in this work. Geographic co-ordinates of the sheet corners are computed from the sheet number codes, as well as their grid co-ordinates in the modern Křovák Projection and Czech and Slovak national grid called S-JTSK. Distortions caused by paper drying and shrinkage were analysed and a mathematical algorithm is given to compute their effects. Statistical analysis shows that the shrinkage is direction-dependent at the studied 125 map sheets throughout the Czech Republic. This analysis also verified the usefulness and practical adaptability of the shrinkage correction method to obtain more precisely rectified map sheets for GIS applications.
The present paper focuses on the use of old maps and written sources in analyses of the landscape structure and husbandry in the first half of the 19th century. The studied area is situated in the Boletice Military Area in Southern Bohemia (southwest of the Czech Republic). Attention was paid in particular to the area of the former villages of Ondřejov and Chlumany. The maps of the First and the Second Military Surveys, Stable Cadastre, and forestry maps were used for the analysis, together with selected written sources. The results show that ingenious agriculture including mowing, grazing of a notable number of cattle, ploughing and forestry was once characteristic in the area. This paper presents especially the woodland structure in the area and some inconsistencies that were found on the old maps.
The paper deals about significant projects of large scale mapping at the beginning of 19th century in the Habsburg Empire. They have been already based on uniform geodetic horizontal control. Basic parameters and features of Second Military Survey in the territory of the Czech Lands as well as links with project of Stable cadastre are delineated. Technology of establishing the horizontal control (1st order trigonometric networks) is described in detail. Qualitative parameters of geodetically measured data and the survey documentation are analysed. Accuracy analysis of angular measurements and methodology of co-ordinate computations in the Gusterberg coordinate system are also discussed.By means of identical points the horizontal control enables unambiguous transformation from the Gusterberg and St. Stephen co-ordinate systems into the national co-ordinate system (JTSK) or WGS 84 with the accuracy higher than graphical accuracy of original maps. This transformation, published here as the global transformation key (GTK), is of great importance. The results of tests of GTKs compiled separately for Bohemia and Moravia+Silesia together with the analysis of contact zone of both above mentioned historical co-ordinate systems are introduced.As an example of GTK application georeferenced map sheets from Second Military Survey are presented. GTKs are of fundamental importance in unification of heterogeneous geodetic information files of cadastre of real estates in the Czech Republic.
The Müller’s map of Bohemia originated in the years 1712 till 1718 as the result of the first systematic topographic mapping of the Czech lands. This map served as a base for the First Military Survey realized 1763–1787 on the area of the whole Habsburg Empire. The paper presents a study of relations between the Müller’s map of Bohemia and the maps from the First Military Survey from the region near the town Kladno in the Central Bohemia. The sections of the above mentioned old maps in electronic form have been used for accuracy analysis of selected points located within the test area. The same area has been investigated on the present topographic map of the Czech Republic (scale: 1:25 000). The centres of 39 settlements have been identified in all compared maps and their rectangular plane co-ordinates have been recorded. For the analysis, affine transformation was applied on the point coordinates. The presented results may contribute to the discussion on the positional accuracy of these old maps and on the way our predecessors used for mapping of the Czech Lands in the 18th century.
Authors:Máté Krisztián Kardos and Adrienne Clement
use on water quality in the upper Nisa catchment in theCzechRepublic and in Germany . Science of the Total Environment , 586 , 1316 – 1325 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.221 . Kerekes-Steindl , Z. ( 2016 ). Water quality
V 1996: Seismicity of Europe and the Mediterranean. K Klima ed., Academy of Sciences of theCzechRepublic, Geophysical Institute, 28 pp. plus earthquake catalogue Regional Moment Tensor Catalog, and Automatic Moment Tensor Solutions:
: Geology of the Czech Part of the Upper Silesian Basin (in Czech with English Abstract). Ministry of the Environment of theCzechRepublic (ed.), 227.
Dowding C H 1992: Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. Abstr. , 29, No. 2