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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors: Nóra Papp, Mónika Tóth, Tünde Dénes, Kinga Gyergyák, Rita Filep, Sámuel Gergely Bartha, Rita Csepregi, Viktória Lilla Balázs and Ágnes Farkas

Ethnomedicine using mostly plants is of pivotal importance nowadays in several Transylvanian regions in Romania. In this study (2007–2015), one Swabian-German, one Hungarian, three Csángó-Hungarian and nine Székely-Hungarian villages were selected to collect ethnomedicinal treatments for various gastrointestinal diseases. Some of the studied villages have partial or no permanent medical and pharmaceutical services. The 374 inhabitants interviewed used mostly medicinal plants based on ancient knowledge. The 78 (53 wild and 25 cultivated) plants documented have 181 local names and are used to treat ailments such as loss of appetite, bloating, stomach ache, gastric ulcer, and diarrhea, mostly in tea form. This knowledge decreases continuously because of loss of interest among young people and through frequent use of media sources and books. Although some of these plants have also been described in official medicinal sources, several data suggest the need for further fieldwork and new experimental analyses to highlight the valuable role of these plants in recent phytotherapy.

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: recitation of the charms along with drinking a glass of wine, which the patient consumes after the treatment ( Ionas 2007 :Β:65), or applying oil or ethanol on the belly ( Ionas 2007 :Β:72). The typical structure for the charm of this type has two standard

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1 Introduction This study deals with the treatment of initial geminates as non-actual surface forms in light of Parallel OT as an analytical framework. It focuses on the case of Qassimi Arabic (QA), a Najdi dialect spoken in the Al-Qassim region in

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1 Introduction This study deals with the treatment of initial geminates as non-actual surface forms in light of Parallel OT as an analytical framework. It focuses on the case of Qassimi Arabic (QA), a Najdi dialect spoken in the Al-Qassim region in

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In regard to the aesthetic and stylistic phisiognomy of the music of both Sándor Veress (1907-92) and György Kurtág (*1926) it is instructive to focus on their treatment of the melodic dimension. For both the melodic statement remains a basic necessity, even in the context of the post-war avantgarde. Yet in contrast to Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, and especially their epigones, composing for Veress and Kurtág often means “seeking melody” in which the sought after object cannot appear in its “pure” form. Veress' position is discussed in the light of Orbis tonorum for chamber orchestra (1986). On the basis of two Beckett pieces of Kurtág - Mi is a szó (1990), What is the Word (1991) - and his Életút (1992), aspects of his aesthetics and the melodic treatment are examined.  

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This paper is the first in what aims to be a series of papers toward a new decipherment and linguistic reconstruction of the Kitan Assembled Script Eulogy for Empress Xuanyi of 1101 A.D. In my treatment of this inscription, I have attempted to juxtapose the Kitan text and its very roughly corresponding Chinese text as much as possible, to allow for greater accuracy in decipherment and reconstruction. This methodology has allowed me to identify several words with previously unnoticed Mongolic cognates.

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Summary

Adonis presents a special case of Romans' wide interest in Eastern religions during the Augustan age: he was brought to Rome by poets, and for this reason his ‘existence’ in Latin culture was exclusively literary. His worship never had the same importance as in Hellenistic Egypt, but the pathos of this figure, and his story of love and death aroused the interest of the elegiac poets, in particular, who used his exemplum to illustrate certain τόποι of their genre and to emphasize the originality of their poetry. Through the analysis of his treatment in Propertius and in Ovid a series of reflections on elegy's nature and sense can be reconstructed in an interesting dialogue between the two poets.

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Goldmark was the first of several composers to write a work based on Heinrich von Kleist’s controversial play, Penthesilea. Early critical opinion about the overture was divided. Hanslick found it distasteful, whereas others were thrilled by Goldmark’s powerful treatment of the subject. Composed in 1879, during the 1880s Penthesilea became established in orchestral repertoire throughout Europe and America. The overture represents the conflict of violence and sexual attraction between the Queen of the Amazons and Achilles. Exoticism in the play is achieved by contrasting brutal violence, irrational behaviour and extreme sensual passion. This is recreated musically by drawing on topics established in opera. Of particular note is the use of dissonance and unexpected modulations, together with extreme rhythmic and dynamic contrast. A key feature of the music is the interplay between military rhythms representing violence and conflict, and a legato, rocking theme which suggests desire and sensuality.

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The structures, or architectural forms, can be very various. They are independent both as to text and tune, are inconcievable by lyrics or melody taken separately, have nothing to do with the conscious intention or representation of the singers themselves, and are spontaneously actualized during the singing. Due to such immaterial structuring possibilities, and using only the formal possibilities of the syntagmatic, in Romanian traditional/folk singing a single poetic text can receive 64 formal treatments/versions. For establishing the existence of these architectural variants I have started from observations such as the one belonging to Bartók, who noticed that Romanians had the peculiarity of singing the same verse four times. Other observations spoke about tree times repetitions of each verse, while in someother circumstances verses are repeated just once. If we logically establish all possible forms of sytagmatic repetitions we obtain this sum of 64 variants, which constitute the equally real and virtual being of each and any folk song. These structures and architectures were very important to the old, traditional/peasant aesthetics, and their actualization was essential espetially to ceremonial repertories such as Winter-Solstice-Songs (carols). By giving up devices such as verse repetition and stanzaic refrains, and by shortening the time for performing the epic songs of the peasant carol, what was lost was the immaterial aspect of unconscious constructing, the abysmal pleasure for implied mathematics, was lost one of the essences of the sacred experience, which is -as philosophers put it - 'experiencing the Number'.

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Summary

The figure to the right of the Madonna on Albrecht Altdorfer's small painting in the Vienna Art History Museum could never be convincingly named. Whereas the older bald man on the left expands the group into a “Holy Family”, the youthful figure with blonde curls had been called an angel or John the Evangelist only with considerable reservation. Designation of this figure as the early Christian martyr Agapitus of Praeneste, however, makes it possible to explain all his characteristics (his youthful appearance, the bowl of glowing coals with which he was martyred, the deacon's clothing). This identification as St. Agapitus, who is venerated in only a few places, makes it possible to establish a connection between the painting and the Upper Austrian Benedictine monastery at Kremsmünster, where the major share of the saint's relics are located. A tradition of representing the saint as a deacon had developed there, as shown by examples from book illumination and sculpture. Abbot Johannes I Schreiner, a confidant of Emperor Maximilian, could either have ordered or been the recipient of the painting, which is dated 1515. The exquisite design of the Altdorfer painting, with the almost capricious treatment of the northern Italian picture type of the close-up half-length figure beneath lush hanging fruit, could have been made especially to suit the abbot's humanist taste. The painting differs in this respect from other Madonna paintings by Altdorfer which were conceived as devotional images

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