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References [1] Arun Subramani , Joseph G. Jacangelo , “ Treatment technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate volume minimization: A

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Péter Bor, József Csanádi, Gábor Veréb, Sándor Beszédes, Zita Šereš, Zsuzsanna László, Cecilia Hodúr and Szabolcs Kertész

, L. H. , Zhu , Z. , Wan , Y. , Jaffrin , M. Y. ( 2012 ) Treatment of dairy effluent by shear-enhanced membrane filtration: The role of foulants . Separation and Purification Technology , 96 : 194 – 203

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors: Emna Ayari, Csaba Németh, Karina Ilona Hidas, Adrienn Tóth, Dávid Láng and László Friedrich

products because they are easy to handle. Microbiological safety of liquid products is mainly guaranteed by pasteurization ( Lechevalier et al., 2017 ). Consequently, there are many standardizations of the heat-treatment. The USDA requires liquid egg

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arranged randomly to form the bulk structure. Also apparent between the crystallites and grains were pores, into which electrolyte is expected to permeate during electrochemical discharge. Heat treatment of γ-MnO 2 Before

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Thermal treatment and analysis

The art of adjacent (near-equilibrium) studies

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author: J. Šesták

Abstract  

Heating and/or cooling of substances is one of the oldest and basic methods for preparing materials with defined properties. This always leaves a definitive fingerprint of the thermal history. Beside knowing the structure we need to specify such materials by their thermodynamic behaviour, i.e., stability/metastability, phase relations and transitions, particularly establishing corresponding characteristic points. All this can be based on ordinary thermodynamics but its validity must be approved for non-equilibrium conditions of temperature changes where equilibrium and kinetic effects overlap. The slower the phase transition proceeds the greater is the deviation of the system state (kinetic curve) from its equilibrium state (equilibrium background). This makes possible to locate the actual phase boundary between two states investigated, resulting in the so-called kinetic phase diagrams. Most of modern technologies are intentionally based on non-equilibrium phenomena in order to create metastable/nonstable phases of specific properties. In this sense thermal analysis is understand as the method for determining the sample state on the basis of the sample interactions with the surroundings whose intensive parameters are controlled. Temperature is here considered as a basic parameter that connects all thermophysical measurements and thermal treatments.

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, China. Also, the food grade Ca-lactate and the sodium alginate was bought from Sigma Aldrich, Bulgaria. Treatments All of the fruit were selected without injury and with stalk, were carefully washed and dried before the experiments. Three types of

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chemical and/or physical surface treatments were developed in order to guarantee a better fiber–matrix adhesion [ 2 , 3 ]. The evaluation of how effective a treatment is can be made by several methods, including scanning electron microscopy and mechanical

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obtain higher machinability can be achieved by adding small amounts of copper and/or molybdenum to Ni–Fe alloys. By doing thus, one can obtain composition's range exhibiting high permeability which can be improved by annealing treatment. Such approach has

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, the high rate of fat adsorption may limit the transport of soluble substrates and consequently cause the conversion rate in the substrates to decrease ( Atallah et al., 2020 ). Anaerobic digestion (AD) has long been recognized as an effective treatment

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Introduction Heat treatment is a routine operation in food production since it effectively destroys microorganisms that cause spoilage in food, thereby increasing the shelf life of products. At the same time, high temperatures may have a negative

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