Historical lexicography and etymology fail to examine the validity of words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with the present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin–Italian–German–Croatian–Hungarian) published in 1595 and compiled by a Croatian author Faust Vrančić. In the paper, seven criteria are used. The analyzed words are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages with mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.
Historical lexicography and history of words fail to examine the validity of the words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with this present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin, Italian, German, Croatian, and Hungarian) compiled by Faust Vrančić, a Croatian author, published in 1595, which is analysed by seven criteria. The words analysed are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages at mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.
This paper gives an overview of the methods employed in process-oriented investigations of translation competence and its development and describes their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, it provides a survey of the findings gained in this field of research so far. It then focuses on desiderata. Special emphasis will be placed on the contrastive evaluation of methods, on longitudinal studies, as well as on the documentation and dissemination of process data. The design of one longitudinal study, TransComp, which investigates the development of translation competence in 12 students of translation over a period of three years and compares it to that of 10 professional translators with more than 10 years of experience, will be introduced. Furthermore, asset management systems will be suggested to make translation process data accessible to the scientific community and lay the foundations for a platform for information exchange between scholars working in the field of translation process research. At the end of the article, the contributions collected in this volume will be introduced.
It can be stated that dance notation was proved to be an established tool for dance research and dance education in understanding and analyzing movement. This theorem is especially valid in cases where, the structure of dance is amorphous, the units of movement sequences differ from that of the accompanying music, the tempo of the dance is high. Dance notation is used rather isolated in the field of traditional dance in Hungary, mainly in dance research. In the light of the research introduced above it is highly recommended to introduce dance notation in research, education, aesthetics and criticism in the other genres of dance.
This paper examines the use of direct citation in the correspondence between the Egyptian Pharaoh and his officials and his Syro-Canaan vassals in the El-Amarna archive. A frequent phenomenon in the modern and ancient world alike, direct citation serves to support the writer’s claims, lay the blame on or absolve others, demonstrate loyalty, and depict distress. The examples adduced fall into four categories: authoritative, third-party, confirmative, and fabricated/ imaginary speech. Raising the question of the validity of applying modern linguistic theories to ancient sources, these types are analysed in the light of the international diplomacy that flourished in the Fertile Crescent during the 14th-century BCE.
Over 100 years ago “Kleinasien. Ein Neuland der Kunst-geschichte” was the apt title of a now classic publication of the famous Vienna Art-Historian Josef Strzygowski (1862–1941). Until today the title of the book is still valid and the researcher is able to make interesting discoveries in this area and field of investigation. The paper points out why this still is possible and why the systematic Christian art-historical and archaeological investigation and research of Asia Minor hampered during the last 100 years.
The present paper gives a positive answer to the question about the possibility of adequate poetic translation. It presents extracts of Russian poetry that contain various phonic devices (e.g. rhythmic variations, sound repetitions, vowel alternations, consonant clusters, etc.) which, in addition to other verbal means, make up the peculiar aesthetic value of a poetic work. The Hungarian translations of the extracts from Pushkin’s The Bronze Horseman and Eugene Onegin, Tyutchev’s Autumn Evening, and Tvardovsky’s Vassili Tyorkin, made by the prominent poets and translators Lajos Áprily, Árpád Galgóczy, and Lőrinc Szabó, masterly reproduce the phonic qualities of the Russian texts, and prove the validity of the Pushkinian claim on the “alliance of sound, thought, and sentiment” in lyric poetry.
Translation studies and other disciplines in the humanities have become increasingly politicized as scholars act on the presumption that the dominance of Western theories is the result of power differentials rather than academic merit. This postcolonialist mindset is based on the claim that cultures are equally valid, but there are objective and cross-culturally intersubjective standards for comparing certain aspects of cultures. The problems with such prescriptive cultural relativism are that the nation-state is regarded as the only legitimate unit of culture, that national differences are overemphasized, and that an “is” is turned into an “ought.” Built on these misconceptions, postcolonialism challenges the political establishment in central countries but serves as an excuse to suppress the demand for progress from peripheral sectors in peripheral cultures. The attempt to export postcolonialism, a culture-specific theory, to the whole world is thus itself a colonialist act.
This paper proposes the use of ad hoc corpora in journalistic translation research (JTR), particularly to analyse content rather than language issues in news texts. To illustrate the validity of an ad hoc corpus as a research tool, this article will survey the articles reporting on the death and funeral of Margaret Thatcher, posted on the website of the BBC in English and Spanish. It will examine the approach to the news event on the two websites, and whether the news writers/translators of the Spanish texts undermine the dominant narrative found in the English articles. The corpus comprises the texts transedited into Spanish, the English texts, and English and Spanish co-texts that were posted during the same period of time. The results show that BBC Mundo writers/translators offer their readership a distinct approach to this particular news item, which emphasises the negative aspects of Margaret Thatcher's terms in office.