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-Sayed , G. N. and Ignoffo , C. M. ( 1994 ): Relationship among enzyme activities and virulence parameters in B. bassiana infections of Galleria mellonella and Trichoplusia ni . J. Invert. Pathol. 64 , 13 – 17 . Han , Z. , Moores , G

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, M. R., Nester, S. E., Austin, C. N., Stone C. L., Frederick R. D., Hartman, R. D. and Miles M. R. (2006): Evaluation of virulence of Phakospora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae isolates. Plant Dis. 90, 708–716. Miles M. R

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Trudy M. Wassenaar, Anke Zschüttig, Claudia Beimfohr, Thomas Geske, Christian Auerbach, Helen Cook, Kurt Zimmermann and Florian Gunzer

) Wassenaar TM, Gaastra W: Bacterial virulence, where to draw the line? FEMS Microbiol Letters 201, 1–7 (2001) Wassenaar TM, Alter T (2012): Virulence genes in microbial risk assessment of probiotic organisms: what do genome sequences tell us

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Comoé Koffi Donatien Benie, Adjéhi Dadié, Nathalie Guessennd, Nadège Ahou N’gbesso-Kouadio, N’zebo Désiré Kouame, David Coulibaly N’golo, Solange Aka, Etienne Dako, Koffi Marcellin Dje and Mireille Dosso

, Al-Marzoqi AH , Zahraa MA , Shalan AA : Molecular and phenotypic study of virulence genes in a pathogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from various clinical origins by PCR: profiles of genes and toxins . Res J Pharm, Biol Chem Sci 7

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Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt), causing net blotch in barley, is an important and frequently isolated leaf pathogen across the globe. The virulence spectrum of Ptt from North Africa including Morocco is poorly understood. Sixteen barley genotypes were challenged, at seedling stage, with 15 Ptt isolates that were collected from different agroecological zones of Morocco. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The ANOVA revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) effects of genotype (G), isolate (I) and G×I interaction explaining 23.2, 62.5, and 13.9% of the variation, respectively. Therefore, the current study revealed highly diverse virulence pattern of Moroccan isolates. Furthermore, the results indicated that minor virulence of Ptt isolates dominated over virulence interaction. In addition, Taffa (6-rowed) and Aglou (2 rowed), had the highest level of resistance to Ptt, while Coast and Rabat071 were the most susceptible genotypes. Pt2, Pt7, Pt8 and Pt4 were being the most virulent isolates, while Pt10 and Pt11 were the least virulent isolates. The emergence of the new Ptt pathotypes, which were highly virulent to durable resistance in Rabat071 posed a risk of breaking down the currently deployed resistance to net blotch in Morocco. A careful evaluation and selection of Ptt isolates based on minor virulence pattern to barley genotypes is essential for successful barley breeding program for resistance to net blotch in Morocco.

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Wagner, V. E., Filiatrault, M. J., Picardo, K. F., Iglewski, B. H.: Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and pathogenesis issues. In: Cornelis, P.: Pseudomonas Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic

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Literature Ahmed , S. , Delmotte , F. and Tourvieille de Labrouhe , D. ( 2012 ): Emerging virulence arising from hybridisation facilitated by multiple introductions of the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii . Fungal

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Literature Ahmed , S. , Delmotte , F. and Tourvieille de Labrouhe , D. ( 2012 ): Emerging virulence arising from hybridisation facilitated by multiple introductions of the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii . Fungal

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ewa Dworniczek, Justyna Piwowarczyk, Jacek Bania, Beata Kowalska-Krochmal, Ewa Wałecka, Alicja Seniuk, Izabela Dolna and Grażyna Gościniak

4538 4545 Dworniczek, E., Kuzko, K., Mróz, E., Wojciech, L., Adamski, R., Sobieszczamska, B., Seniuk, A.: Virulence factors and in vitro adherence of Enterococcus strains to

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ana P. Rodrigues, A. R. M. Holanda, G. P. Lustosa, S. M. B. Nóbrega, Willma J. Santana, Luciana B. S. Souza and H. D. M. Coutinho

. B., Gorvel, J. P., Ferrandon, D., Ewbank, J. J.: Virulence factors of the human opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens identified by in vivo screening. The EMBO Journal 22(7) , 1451-1460 (2003). Virulence factors of

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