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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: H. Grausgruber, S. Miesenberger, R. Schoenlechner, and J. Vollmann

Wholemeal products of einkorn wheat ( Triticum monococcum L.) could help to elevate the daily uptake of both dietary fibre and lutein, compounds which can assist the prevention of coronary heart disease and age-related macular degeneration, respectively. However, gluten strength and rheological properties of einkorn wheat are low and bran particles are reported to decrease bread volume and crumb elasticity of flours. It was demonstrated that the application of individual enzymes and/or emulsifiers or their application in mixtures can significantly improve bread volume and crumb firmness of whole-grain einkorn breads. Crumb porosity characteristics, however, were not affected. Synergistic interactions between the dough improvers can be supposed. The antithesis between the application of dough conditioners and the organic production of einkorn wheat, and optional methods for optimisation of whole-grain einkorn bread are discussed.

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The authors have developed transgenic wheat lines with broad range of herbicide resistance. The transgenic wheat, containing bacterial derived alien gene (bar) regulated under the maize ubiquitin promoter, is resistant to glyphosinate (phosphinotrichin) agent family. The presence of bar gene expression product (phosphinotrichin acetyl transpherase enzyme, PAT) was confirmed by PAT-specific ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay). The qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the transgenic wheat lines in comparison with their non-transgenic counterpart (year 2000-2002) and protein utilization of the wheat wholemeal flours (year 2002) were summarized. Nutritional evaluation of the protein was based on a rat model by using N-balance experiments. Among the protein sources, heat-treated samples were also introduced into the experimental diets. It was found that heat denaturation of the proteins led to results with somewhat increased biological value indices. The introduction of GM technology did not affect food intake or nutritional performance of the rats.

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-cholesterol products are also popular due to their efficiency in controlling body weight. Wholemeal products are rich in fibre, thus help in digestion; although, one person expressed his concerns about wholegrain products, because different fungi can attack the

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Scudamore, K.A., Guy, R.C.E., Kelleher, B. & MacDonald, S.J. (2008): Fate of the Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, during extrusion of wholemeal wheat grain. Fd Addit. Contam. , 25 , 331

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