Authors:F. Szira, I. Monostori, G. Galiba, M. Rakszegi, and A.F. Bálint
Wheat-based food has great importance in human nutrition: in European countries they provide 20–30% of the daily calorie intake, and additionally, the wholemeal and healthy food becomes even more popular. Mineral content in grains is dependent on genetic and environmental factors (varieties, soil type, geographical location of the growing area, etc.), therefore, it is complicated to estimate how many percentage of the daily micronutrient requirements can be covered by wheat-based products. In this study, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) contents of 13 commercial wheat flour products, and the white flour and wholemeal of 24 winter type bread wheat varieties were studied to estimate the nutritional value of these products. All investigated samples were produced in Hungary. Significant variation was revealed in the case of all mineral elements in the different brands of wheat flours. Generally, the white flour enriched with germ showed higher mineral contents than the average values of normal white flours. Furthermore, the wholemeal has higher Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, but not higher Se contents than the white flours. Mo content was also higher in some brands of white flour than in wholemeal.The investigated winter wheat varieties showed significant differences in the case of Fe, Mn, Se and Zn contents, but none of the varieties showed outstandingly high micronutrient content. The milling process — as it was expected — reduces the concentrations of four elements (Fe 33%; Mn 88%; Zn 71%; Cu 44%); however, the Se and Mo concentrations were not affected significantly. Using the average micronutrient content in the wholemeal of varieties, the daily Mn and Fe requirement can be covered by the consumption of about 250 g wholemeal. Additionally, the daily Mo requirement could be met by the daily consumption of 140–190 g of commercial white or wholemeal flour.
Authors:L. Hřivna, L. Homola, I. Burešová, and P. Smutná
The research was conducted to describe distribution of protein fractions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mill products (semolina, flour and bran) and evaluate the possibility of prediction of protein fractions distribution from values of bread-making quality (protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation volume) evaluated on wholemeal and specific flour. The content of protein fractions was determined by size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography. Significantly highest glutenin content was found in flour (5.01%). The investigated mill products did not differ in gliadin content, the content of albumin/globulin fraction reached the highest values in bran (3.60%). The model of prediction of glutenin and gliadin content in mill products explained 31–62% and 83–92% of the original variability. The protein fractions distribution in wheat mill products could be satisfactorily predicted from known values of protein and gluten content evaluated on wholemeal and Zeleny sedimentation volume evaluated on specific flour.
Authors:M. Varga, J. Bánhidy, L. Cseuz, and J. Matuz
The anthocyanin content of spring and winter wheat cultivars and their hybrids with purple and blue coloured grains was evaluated under Hungarian growing conditions. In all 3 years the anthocyanin content of blue grained wheats was significantly higher than that of purple ones. Anthocyanin content was influenced by environmental factors. In the progenies of crosses between Hungarian hard red winter wheat cultivars and blue-grained varieties, the anthocyanin content of the grind was 21–157 mg/kg, while that of the flour was 5.3–17.4 mg/kg. Consequently, most of the anthocyanin content was in the bran. The high anthocyanin content of blue and purple wheat varieties can be applied successfully for elevating the anthocyanin content of bakery products if whole-meal flour or bran is used.