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Abstract  

Zigetang Lake located in the central Tibetan Plateau was selected for the purpose of understanding of recent sedimentation rates. Based on 137Cs dating marker, the sediment rate was 0.077 cm·yr−1. The sedimentation rate was calculated to be 0.071 cm·yr−1 and 0.029 g·cm−2·yr−1 on the basis of 210Pb CIC model. 210Pb CRS model was also used for understanding of recent sedimentation change. The sediment accumulation rates for the CRS model ranged from 0.022 to 0.038 g·cm−2·yr−1 with an irregular high value of 0.12 g·cm−2·yr−1 around 1932 at Zigetang Lake core in the past eighty years.

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Abstract  

Historical records of short lived (140Ba, 131I, 103Ru and 95Zr+95Nb) and long-lived (137Cs and 90Sr) fission products by fallout measurements performed in Argentina since 1959 were analyzed in order to define the main characteristics of 137Cs fallout time evolution in the Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary cores were sampled from Lake Nahuel Huapi and Lake Morenito, which are located within Nahuel Huapi National Park. 137Cs specific activity profiles were measured and 210Pb dating was performed in each core. The time evolution of 137Cs fallout shows different characteristics than records taken in the Northern Hemisphere.137Cs specific activity profiles of the cores studied reproduce the fallout time sequence observed in the historical records, and the chronology obtained shows excellent agreement with 210Pb dating.

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Abstract  

It has been generally accepted when estimating sedimentation rates using the 137Cs dating method that the position of the 137Cs maximum in a sediment profile represents the year 1963. In this paper we validated this approach by developing a model in which the annual 137Cs global fallout flux for the Yangtze River estuary was established on the basis of the Tokyo flux corrected for precipitation rates observed in Shanghai. As the 137Cs maxima in the sediment deposition profiles depend on the sedimentation rates, the sub-sampling intervals were calculated accordingly. Higher measured than the calculated values were found in some cores, what may be due to fluctuating sedimentation rates and an additional deposition of 137Cs from land-based sources. The study provides useful information on the reliability of the measured 137Cs maxima in sediment profiles frequently used for dating of sediments in marine (coastal regions, open seas) as well as in terrestrial (lakes) environments.

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Abstract  

238Pu, 239-240Pu, and 241Am were measured, by -counting after radiochemical separation, in two lake sediment cores. The profiles of these transuranics were compared to those of the fission product 137Cs. Datation of nuclear events and data on behavior of the studied elements were deduced.

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Abstract  

Two sediment cores were recovered in San Simón Bay (NW Spain) in order to establish sediment accumulation rates by 210Pb and 137Cs dating and to reconstruct metal pollution history. Sediment composition was determined by X-ray Fluorescence. A main lithogenic origin was shown up. Grain size conditions radionuclide activities and element concentrations. Fine grained sediments concentrate pollutants and showed higher activities. Radionuclide profiles are affected by diagenetic processes and sedimentary disturbances, but a temporal framework could be obtained for the intertidal area, where the anthropogenic inputs of Cu, Pb and Zn started several decades ago.

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