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E , Kaur N , Anyanwu S , Luecke DF , Datar A , Patel S , et al.: Evaluation of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi . Infect Drug Resist 4 , 97 – 113 ( 2011

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Lyme borreliosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis and monocytic ehrlichiosis are well studied in humans and dogs. In horses, these diseases are not widely investigated and limited information is available about their occurrence. The purpose of this study was to present the first ELISA-based report on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in horses from Northern Bulgaria. A total of 192 horses were investigated from three regions in Northern Bulgaria (Northwestern, North-Central and Northeastern Bulgaria). All equine sera were tested for A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and B. burgdorferi antibodies by a commercial rapid ELISA test. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were found in all the three regions at a mean frequency of 12% (23/192), ranging from 9.38 to 15.63% by region. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. were found in horses from one region (Northeastern) at a rate of 0.5% (1/192). Anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were detected in all the three regions with a mean frequency of 15.1% (29/192), ranging from 14.06 to 17.19% by region. A co-exposure to A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi was observed in 6.3% of the cases (12/192). This is the first report on the natural exposure of horses to these bacteria (A. phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp. and B. burgdorferi) in Northern Bulgaria.

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susceptibility of different morphological forms of Borrelia burgdorferi . Infect Drug Resist 4 , 97 – 113 ( 2011 ) 4. Feng J , Wang T , Shi W

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Ivana Ivanović
,
Marina Žekić Stošić
,
Eva Ružić Sabljić
,
Tjaša Cerar Kišek
,
Vesna Cvitković Špik
,
Aleksandra Popović
, and
Sara Savić

/or reservoir of various infectious pathogens, such as viruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus, TBEV), bacteria ( Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp.), and protozoa ( Babesia spp.). I. ricinus has a wide geographic range

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Canine Lyme borreliosis may be caused by three Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. The prevalence of infection by Borrelia species was determined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the enzyme Fsp4H I in the blood of dogs naturally infested by ticks in an endemic region of Poland. Blood samples were collected from 98 dogs of various breeds, delivered to the Veterinary Clinic in Szczecin (northwestern Poland) for various reasons. Nested PCR revealed the presence of DNA characteristic of only 1 genospecies, i.e. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), in all PCR-positive samples. Digestion of PCR products from a fragment of the fla gene amplified with primers FLA1 and FLA2 gave only one band pattern consistent with the pattern obtained from sequence analysis of the fla gene from a reference isolate of B. burgdorferi s.s. GeHo (X15660) from GenBank.

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Changes in ELISA serology are frequently used to determine antibiotic treatment success for Lyme disease in horses. This concept was based upon a previous report showing a marked decline in ELISA values in experimentally infected and antibiotic-treated ponies. Changes in Lyme serology following antibiotic treatment in naturally infected horses have not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare Borrelia ELISA antibody concentrations in naturally exposed horses both before and following antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease. A retrospective study was performed comparing oxytetracycline- or doxycyclinetreated (n = 68) and untreated (n = 183) horses from a single equine practice and their change in Borrelia ELISA values over a similar time period. Antibiotictreated horses had a decline in ELISA values in comparison to control horses (P ≤ 0.05) and untreated horses were twice as likely to have their ELISA values increase (OR = 0.5; 95% C.I. = 0.3–0.9) compared to treated horses. The magnitude of the decline in ELISA units following treatments was small compared to that previously reported in experimentally infected and treated ponies. Field-exposed horses with high Borrelia burgdorferi ELISA values who are treated with either oxytetracycline or doxycycline can be expected to have only a small decline in ELISA values following treatment. Persistently high ELISA titres following appropriate treatments for Lyme disease may not, without appropriate clinical signs, be a reason for more prolonged treatment.

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Ticks of the genus Ixodes are vectors for many pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp., and may also serve as vectors for Bartonella spp. However, the role of ticks in Bartonella transmission requires additional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether coinfection with two or more vector-borne pathogens can occur in the following three groups of dogs: I — dogs with suspected borreliosis (N = 92), II — dogs considered healthy (N = 100), and III — dogs with diagnosed babesiosis (N = 50). Polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in the blood of dogs. In dogs of Group I, the DNA of both A. phagocytophilum and Bartonella sp. was detected (14% and 1%, respectively). In eight dogs, coinfection was indicated: A. phagocytophilum or Bartonella sp. with B. burgdorferi s.l. (the presence of antibodies against and/or DNA B. burgdorferi s.l.). In the case of five dogs positive for A. phagocytophilum DNA, no coinfection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was shown. In Group II, the DNA of A. phagocytophilum was detected in four dogs. In Group III, no pathogenic agents possibly transmitted by ticks were confirmed. No DNA of R. helvetica was detected in any of the groups studied.

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
E. Sapi
,
K. Balasubramanian
,
A. Poruri
,
J. S. Maghsoudlou
,
K. M. Socarras
,
A. V. Timmaraju
,
K. R. Filush
,
K. Gupta
,
S. Shaikh
,
P. A. S. Theophilus
,
D. F. Luecke
,
A. MacDonald
, and
B. Zelger

patient with persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection . J Am Acad Dermatol 28 , 312 – 314 ( 1993 ) 4. Dumler JS : Molecular

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attachment in Hokkaido, Japan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013; 13: 92–97. 12 Barbour AG, Bunikis J, Travinsky B, et al. Niche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors:
E. Sapi
,
K. Gupta
,
K. Wawrzeniak
,
G. Gaur
,
J. Torres
,
K. Filush
,
A. Melillo
, and
B. Zelger

Introduction Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and sensu lato in the United States and Europe, respectively [ 1 – 5 ]. Lyme disease is estimated to affect 300,000 people

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