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Beighton, D., Ludford, R., Clark, D.T., Brailsford, S.R., Pankhurst, C.L., Tinsley, G.F., Fiske, J., Lewis, D., Daly, B., Khalifa, N.: Use of CHROMagar Candida medium for isolation of yeasts from dental samples

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Nagendra Mishra, Tulika Prasad, Neeraj Sharma, Anurag Payasi, Rajendra Prasad, Dwijendra Gupta, and Randhir Singh

Pathogenic yeasts from the genus Candida can cause serious infection in humans particularly, in immunocompromised patients and are now recognized as major agents of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. In the recent years, there has been a marked increase in the incidence of treatment failures in candidiasis patients receiving long-term antifungal therapy, which has posed a serious problem in its successful use in chemotherapy. Candida cells acquire drug resistance (MDR) during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents have been elucidated in Candida species and can be mainly categorized as (i) changes in the cell wall or plasma membrane, which lead to impaired drug (azole) uptake; (ii) alterations in the affinity of the drug target Erg11p (lanosterol 14∝-demethylase) especially to azoles or in the cellular content of Erg11p due to target site mutation or overexpression of the ERG11 gene; and (iii) the efflux of drugs mediated by membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely CDR1 and CDR2 or to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter, CaMDR1 . Many such manifestations are associated with the formation of Candida biofilms including those occurring on devices like indwelling intravascular catheters. Biofilm-associated Candida show uniform resistance to a wide spectrum of antifungal drugs. A combination of different resistance mechanisms is responsible for drug resistance in clinical isolates of Candida species.

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from any bacteria, as well as from fungal and viral organisms. Candida is an increasing cause of bloodstream infection, with significant mortality and morbidity rates [ 11 ]. The overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has increased fivefold in the

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Ilona Pfeiffer, Zoltán Farkas, Judit Kucsera, Muthusamy Chandrasekaran, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S. Alharbi, and Csaba Vágvölgyi

exchange and recombination in the mitochondrial genome of Candida albicans . J. Bacteriol. 183 , 865 – 872 . 2. Calderone , R. A. , Fonzi , W. A. ( 2001 ) Virulence

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Puig-Asensio, M., Padilla, B., Garnacho-Montero, J., Zaragoza, O., Aguado, J.M., Zaragoza, R., Montejo, M., Muñoz, P., Ruiz-Camps, I., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Almirante, B.: Epidemiology and predictive factors for early and late mortality in Candida

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: E Burgettiné Böszörményi, S Németh, A Fodor, K Bélafiné Bakó, D Vozik, Z Csima, and I Barcs

Introduction The number of diseases caused by fungi is gradually increasing. The most common species is Candida albicans , the other group consists of non-albicans Candida species as per its frequency [ 1

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Renátó Kovács, Anita Czudar, László Horváth, Levente Szakács, László Majoros, and József Kónya

Mishra, N.N., Prasad, T., Sharma, N., Payasi, A., Prasad, R., Gupta, D.K., Singh, R.: Pathogenicity and drug resistance in Candida albicans and other yeast species. A review. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 54

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Dósa, E., Nagy, E.: Evaluation of identification and antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of candida species. (in Hungarian) Klin Kisérl Lab Med 24 , 189 (1997

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Prasad, R., Kapoor, K.: Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida . Int Rev Cytol 242 , 215–248 (2005). Kapoor K. Multidrug resistance in yeast Candida

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ágnes Jakab, Károly Antal, Tamás Emri, Imre Boczonádi, Alexandra Imre, Enikő Gebri, László Majoros, Walter Péter Pfliegler, Máté Szarka, György Balla, József Balla, and István Pócsi

Introduction The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism, which has been identified in healthy mycobiomes of the human skin, mouth, and gut [1] . In addition, Candida species with the predominance of

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