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We studied biomass and species composition changes of open perennial sand grassland ( Festucetum vaginatae ) as response to different levels of simulated grazing pressures. We conducted a factorial micro-plot field experiment on previously grazed grassland that has been abandoned for a long time. In a two-way factorial design of 12 treatments × 8 repeats, we performed clipping (twice a year for three years) and litter treatments (removing and adding litter once at the beginning of the experiment) to simulate components of grazing, namely the biomass removal and the reduction of the litter accumulation. We used field spectroscopy and visual canopy cover estimation to measure the effects on the amount of the above-ground green biomass and on the vegetation composition.

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Kárpáti, I. and Kárpáti, V. (1954): The aspects of the calciphilous turf (Festucetum vaginatae danubiale) in the environs of Vácrátót in 1952. - Acta bot. hung. 1 : 129-157. The aspects of the calciphilous turf (Festucetum

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Coenological results of six areas of several temperate grassland associations compared are taken in communities of, Asplenio septentrionali-Melicetum ciliatae, Cleistogeni-Festucetum sulcatae, Festucetum vaginatae, Potentillo-Festucetum pseudodalmaticae, Salvio nemorosae-Festucetum rupicolae, and Seslerietum heuflerianae-hungaricae associations. All of these stands of the associations are in protected areas, but these sample areas are close to endangered zones. We tried to refer to their function in ecophysiological respect of these grasslands.

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The survey was carried out on the seed bank of several patches of an open, semiarid sandy grassland (Festucetum vaginatae Rapaics ex Soó 1929 (Borhidi 1996)). We chose four, approximately 20 m × 20 m large, adjacent patches, different in their species composition and total cover. Soil samples were taken in early spring and at the end of summer, in two consecutive years. We determined the seed bank of the samples with the seedling emergence method. The fact that we found the seeds of only two species that were not present in the vegetation indicates the isolated and without artificial disturbed state of the grassland. The vegetation and the seed bank of the patches showed a low degree of similarity in the same period, while the composition of the spring aspect reflected clearly in the seed bank of late summer in all four patches. Results showed that mosaic-like appearance is not only characteristic of the vegetation, but also the seed bank of the soil. Differentiation of the seed bank manifested mostly after the period of seed-fall, at the end of summer, while in early spring it was less expressed. On the basis of the differentiation of the seed bank we can conclude that not the dispersion of seeds, but natural vicinity of mother plants was decisive in forming the spatial variation of the seed bank.

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. 16 117 142 Kovács-Láng, E., 1970. Fractional humus investigation of soils under sward communities ( Festucetum vaginatae Danubiale, Festucetum

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Community Ecology
Authors: E. Lellei-Kovács, E. Kovács-Láng, T. Kalapos, Z. Botta-Dukát, S. Barabás, and C. Beier

1870 1877 Kovács-Láng, E. 1974. Examination of dynamics of organic matter in a perennial open sandy steppe-meadow ( Festucetum vaginatae danubiale ) at the Csévharaszt IBP

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Kárpáti, I. and Kárpáti, V. (1954): The aspects of the calciphilous turf (Festucetum vaginatae danubiale) in the environs of Vácrátót in 1952. - Acta Bot. Hung . 1 : 129-157. The aspects of the calciphilous turf (Festucetum

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