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Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is the most serious disease in the southern rice producing regions of China. The use of resistant varieties is the most economic strategy to control the disease. In this paper, a seedling inoculation method was used to evaluate rice germplasm resources for resistance to sheath blight. A total of 363 rice varieties were evaluated with a set of R. solani isolates. The results indicated that the rice varieties generally lacked resistance to R. solani, and no highly resistant/immune (HR) variety was found. However, two varieties displayed clear resistance (R) and 37 showed moderate resistance (MR) to the fungus. Overall, hybrid rice varieties have better resistance than conventional rice varieties, and among hybrid rice varieties, those with the II-32A sterile line genetic background were the most resistant. The results also indicated significant interactions between rice varieties and pathogen isolates, suggesting that an understanding of local R. solani populations is needed when recommending varieties to local growers.

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: S. Babu, R. Nandakumar, S. Sriram, R. Jaisankar, V. Shanmugam, T. Raguchander, R. Samiyappan, and P. Balasubramania

Sriram, S., Raguchander, T., Vidhyasekaran, P., Muthukrishnan, S. and Samiyappan, R. (1997): Genetic relatedness with special reference to virulence among the isolates of Rhizoctonia solani causing sheath blight in rice. J. Plant Dis. Protect. 104, 260

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. Grisham , M. P. and Anderson , N. A. ( 1983 ): Pathogenicity and host specificity of Rhizoctonia solani isolated from carrots . Phytopathology 73 , 1564 – 1569 . Gugino

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Rhizoctonia solani causing damping — off in sugar beet — Microb. Ecol., vol. 42 no. 3 438–445 pp. Olsson S. Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 reduces sclerotia formation, biomass development

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656 Velazhahan, R., Cole. K. C., Anuratha, C. S. and Muthukrishnan, S. (1998): Induction of thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) in Rhizoctonia solani- infected rice and characterization of two

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In order to identify a specific marker for T. harzianum AS12-2, a strain capable of controlling rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, UP-PCR was performed using five universal primers (UP) both separately and in pairwise combinations. The application of two UP primers resulted in the amplification of unique fragments from the genomic DNA of T. harzianum AS12-2, clearly distinguishing it from other Trichoderma strains. The unique fragments had no significant sequence homology with any other known sequence available in databases. Based on the sequences of the unique fragments, 14 oligonucleotide primers were designed. Two primer sets amplified a fragment of expected size from the DNA of strain T. harzianum AS12-2 but not from any other examined strains belonging to T. harzianum, to other Trichoderma species assayed, or to other common fungi present in paddy fields of Mazandaran province, Iran. In conclusion, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) markers were successfully identified and rapid, reliable tools were provided for the detection of an effective biocontrol Trichoderma strain, which can facilitate studies of its population dynamics and establishment after release into the natural environment.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Wesam I. A. Saber, Khalid M. Ghoneem, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Younes M. Rashad, Abeer A. Ali, and Ehsan M. Rashad

References 1. Brewer , M. T. , Larkin , R. P. ( 2005 ) Efficacy of several potential biocontrol organisms against Rhizoctonia solani on potato . Crop Prot

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. , Cohen , E. 1989 . Toxicity of chloronitrobenzenes to Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani as related to their structure . Phytoparasitica 17 : 101 – 106

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Mostafa Kamal, M.D., Shahjahan, A.K.M. 1995. Trichoderma in rice field soils and their effect on Rhizoctonia solani . Bangladesh J. Bot. 24 :75–79. Shahjahan A.K.M. Trichoderma in

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Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Kamalakannan, L. Mohan, K. Kavitha, S. Harish, R. Radjacommare, S. Nakkeeran, V. K. Parthiban, R. Karuppiah, and T. Angayarkanni

, India. Asaka, O. and Shoda, M. (1996): Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off of tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB 14. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 4081–4085. Biocontrol

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