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. N. , Ma , H. Z. , Jia , P. X. , Wang , J. , Jia , L. Y. , Zhang , T. G. , Yang , Y. L. , Chen , H. J. , Wei , X. ( 2012 ) Responses of seedling growth and antioxidant activity to excess iron and copper in Triticum aestivum L

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., Gáspár, L., Sárvári, É., Dulai, S., Hoffmann, B., Molnár-Láng, M., Galiba, G. (2004): Physiological and morphological responses to water stress in Aegilops biuncialis and Triticum aestivum genotypes with differing tolerance to drought. Funct

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Purple pericarp is an interesting and useful trait in Triticum aestivum, but the molecular mechanism behind this phenotype remains unclear. The allelic variation in the MYB transcriptors is associated with the phenotype of pigmented organs in many plants. In this study, a MYB transcription factor gene, TaMYB3, was isolated using homology-based cloning and a differentially expressed gene mining approach, to verify the function of the MYB transcriptor in the purple pericarp. The coding sequence of TaMYB3 in cultivar Gy115 was the same as that in cultivar Opata. TaMYB3 was localized to FL0.62–0.95 on chromosome 4BL. The TaMYB3 protein contains DNA-binding and transcription-activation domains, and clustered on a phylogenetic tree with the MYB proteins that regulates anthocyanin and proanthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB3 localized in the nuclei of Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat protoplasts after it was transiently expressed with PEG transformation. TaMYB3 induced anthocyanin synthesis in the pericarp cells of Opata in the dark in collaboration with the basic helix–loop–helix protein ZmR, which is also the function of ZmC1. However, TaMYB3 alone did not induce anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp cells of the white grain wheat cultivar Opata in the light after bombardment, whereas the single protein ZmR did. Light increased the expression of TaMYB3 in the pericarp of Gy115 and Opata, but only induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grains of Gy115. Our results extend our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the purple pericarp trait in T. aestivum.

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Gene effects were analysed using mean stomatal number and specific leaf weight of 12 populations, consisting of both parents (P 1 and P 2 ), F 1 , F 2 , first backcross generations (BC 1 and BC 2 ), second backcross generations (B 11 , B 12 , B 21 , B 22 ) and backcross selfed generations (B 1 s and B 2 s) of four crosses involving three drought-tolerant and three drought-susceptible cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. to determine the nature of gene action governing stomatal number (SN) and specific leaf weight (SLW) through generation mean analysis in moisture stress (E 1 ) and moisture non-stress (E 2 ) environments. The digenic epistatic model was found to be inadequate for stomatal number and the additive-dominance model was found to be adequate for specific leaf weight in most of the crosses. Additive gene effects were predominant for SLW, while for SN both additive and dominance components of variance were important. Epistatic effects, particularly the additive × dominance (j) type of interaction, were present for both the characters. The duplicate type of epistasis was observed for stomatal number in the cross VL421/HS240 in the moisture stress environment. Significant heterosis was observed for the crosses Hindi 62/HS240 and VL421/HS240 over the standard check (SC) in the moisture stress environment (E 1 ) for both the characters. Genotype-environmental interactions and/or differential gene expression appeared to account for the different results found between environments. Hybridization systems, such as biparental mating and/or diallel selective mating, could be useful for the improvement of these traits, which would help in identifying drought-tolerant progenies.

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Red coleoptile is an easily observed trait in Triticum aestivum and can provide some protection against stress. Here, TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1, homologous to TaMYB-D1, which controls red coleoptile formation in the common wheat cultivar ‘Gy115’, was isolated from eight T. aestivum and 34 T. urartu cultivars. The genome sequence of TaMYB-A1 was 867 bp with an intron of 93 bp, which was similar to the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in T. aestivum but different from other MYB transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 had an integrated DNA-binding domain of 102 amino acids and a transcriptional domain of 42 amino acids, which was responsible for regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. TaMYB-A1 was assigned to the same branch as the MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in a phylogenetic tree. A transient expression analysis showed that TaMYB-A1 induced ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells to synthesize anthocyanin with the help of ZmR. A non-functional allele of TaMYB-a1 existed in common wheat cultivars containing rc-a1. One single nucleotide was deleted 715 bp after the start codon in TaMYB-a1 compared with TaMYB-A1. The deletion caused a frame shift mutation, destroyed the DNA transcription activator domain, and resulted in TaMYB-a1 losing its ability to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in ‘Opata’ coleoptile cells. Those cultivars with functional TaMYB-A1 or TuMYB-A1 have red coleoptiles. The isolation of TaMYB-A1 should aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms of coleoptile traits in T. aestivum.

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Börner, A., Schumann, E., Fürste, A., Cöster, H., Leithold, B., Röder, M.S., Weber, W.E. 2002. Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 105 :921

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Ahmed, K.Z., 1992. In vitro selection and genetic transformation of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Ph. D. Thesis, 127 pp., Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary

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on anther culture ability in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Cell Reports 4: 307–310. Buyser J. Effect of 1B/1R translocation on anther culture ability in wheat (Triticum

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amphiploid of Triticum aestivum × Elytrigia elongata . Crop Sci. 2 :658–660. Ross K. Expression of tolerance of N+, K+, Mg+2, Cl−, and SO−2 ions and sea water in the amphiploid of

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extent and significance of seed size variation in New Zealand wheats ( Triticum aestivum L.). N.Z.L. Exp. Agric., 9: 179–184. Hampton J.G. The extent and significance of seed size

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