Investment in fixed capital determines the prospects of expanded reproduction and innovative development of the economy of any country. This is why interstate investment activity is one of the key factors in passing to a new stage: a period of economic growth and fundamental restructuring of the CIS economies, effective interaction for the purpose of pulling them out of crisis and the stabilisation and recovery of national economies. These matters are of strategic importance and are common to all the CIS countries, although each of them has its own specific features requiring different tactical approaches and adjustment to real national conditions. Investment activity in each country depends largely on the possibilities and behaviour of national investors, but interstate cooperation plays an important role as well. The substantial decline in production and investment activity calls for a special approach, namely one considering that investment support for pilot sectors and projects in the real economy could become the main line of the efforts in the CIS states aimed at general stabilisation and the revival of production.
Arisen in the place of the former USSR, Commonwealth of Independent States (further, the CIS), is one of the largest (by its territory, population and total GDP value) supranational formations in the world
-term stability of the sensitizer under the operating conditions. Therefore, it is significant to scrutinize the thermal behaviors of the sensitizer at high temperatures [ 10 ].
In this study, we described the thermal behavior of [ cis -(dithiocyanato)(1
Thermal properties of cis-1,4-poly(butadiene), Europrene cis, were investigated by means of thermal analysis and complementary methods. Thermal analysis of polymer was carried out both in air and inert atmosphere with a derivatgraph, DSC and internal TG-FTIR coupling system as well as internal TG, DTA-MS coupling system. It was found that investigations in air atmosphere the method of the sample preparation ofcis-1,4-poly(butadiene) influences the results of thermal analysis, which is connected with the rate oxygen diffusion into the reaction zone. Taking into consideration both the method of the sample preparing and atmosphere of thermal studies, the values of activation energy of destruction of cis-1,4-poly(butadiene) were determined. Using TG-FTIR and TG-MS methods, some products of thermal destruction of elastomer were determined.
Authors:M. Leitão, C. Nobre, J. Jesus, and J. Redinha
The study of trans- and cis-1,2-cyclohexanediol by infrared spectroscopy was performed. The variation of the maximum frequency and of the bandwidth of the OH stretching vibration give evidence of the role played by hydrogen bonding in the solid and liquid phases of both isomers and allows to follow the phase transitions. A solid rotator phase is shown for the cis compound.
Authors:Dagmara Jacewicz, Joanna Pranczk, Aleksandra Dąbrowska, and Lech Chmurzyński
This study has demonstrated the direct formation of CO2 during the decomposition of the cis-[Cr(C2O4)(PM)(CO3)]− complex anion after addition of perchloric acid to the aqueous solution of this ion. Thus, the studied coordination species
can be successfully used as a source of CO2 under specific conditions. This conclusion has been drawn from results of the kinetic studies of acid hydrolysis of the cis-[Cr(C2O4)(PM)(CO3)]− anion. This reaction was investigated using the stopped-flow technique. The measurements were carried out at temperatures
ranging from 5 to 25 °C and in [H+] concentrations 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7, and 2.0 M. The decarboxylation mechanism for the studied coordination
compound has been proposed.
Authors:H. Al’tshuler, E. Ostapova, L. Sapozhnikova, and O. Al’tshuler
The thermodynamic characteristics of proton exchange in SO3H groups of a sulfonated network polymer based on cis-tetraphenylmetacyclophanoctol for Na+, Cu2+ cations from aqueous solutions were considered for the first time. Microcalorimetric measurements of the heat effects of
Na+-H+ and Cu2+-H+ exchanges were performed, equilibrium compositions of polymer and solution were determined. The changes of Gibbs energy,
enthalpy and entropy of ion exchange were calculated.
The effect of flame retardants such as chloroparaffin, antimony trioxide, mixtures of antimony trioxide and chloroparaffin,
melamine cyanurate and pentabromotoluene on the thermal properties of cis-1,4-polyisoprene peroxide vulcanizate has been studied.
The thermoanalytical curves of elastomers were interpreted. The flame retardants used, except Sb2O3 were found to change the
characteristic thermal transitions of polyisoprene and to cause a decrease in its thermal stability. From among the investigated
flame retardants only pentabromotoluene favoured the degradation of the elastomer in the range of its first exothermic transition.
Authors:N. Petranović, D. Minić, T. Sabo, and D. Doković
Thermal properties of facial and meridional uns-cis-[Co(eddp)gly]0.5H2O complexes were investigated by means of DSC and TG techniques. It wasshown that the processes of thermal decomposition of
these complexes are multi-stepdegradation processes, which can also be well separated into individual steps, depending onthe
molecular symmetry. Thus, the process of thermal degradation of the meridional isomerof the above complex consists of 4 well-separated
steps in the temperature interval from 100to 500C. The corresponding kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of this process
weredetermined, and a possible mechanism is discussed.
Authors:Sandra Šegan, Dejan Opsenica, Bogdan Šolaja, and Dušanka Milojković-Opsenica
Seven pairs of
isomers of bis-steroidal tetraoxanes have been examined by both normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) planar chromatography. Unmodified silica gel was used with ethyl acetate-toluene and ethyl acetate-petroleum ether as mobile phases in typical normal-phase systems. CN-silica with the mobile phases methanol-water and acetone-water and RP-18 silica with water-organic modifier (methanol, acetone, or dioxane) mobile phases were used as reversed-phase systems. For the RP systems a good linear correlation was established between
values and amount ([%]
) of organic modifier in the mobile phase (usually
> 0.99). It was found that under both NP and RP conditions
isomers were more weakly retained than the corresponding
isomers. The only exception to this was the chromatographic behavior of C(24) methyl esters. It was established that increasing the polarity of substituents at C(24) and C(24a) led to stronger retention in NP systems, i.e. weaker retention in RP systems. Highly selective separation was achieved in all the chromatographic systems investigated. Possible separation mechanisms are discussed on the basis of the results obtained.