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triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) under various environmental conditions in Greece. In: Proceedings of 2 nd Balkan Symposium of Field Crops, Novisad, Yugoslavia. Vol. I, pp. 271–273. Stratilakis S

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The objective of this research was to evaluate the actual agronomic performance in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and hexaploid triticale ( X Triticosecale Wittmack) based on the use of a selection index constituted by eleven traits measured at plot level. Two samples of 142 S 0 hexaploid triticale progenies and 89 S 0 bread wheat progenies were sown under rainfed conditions and a selection index was constituted using the following traits: spikes (n o plant −1 and n o plot −1 ), grain and biological yield (g plot −1 ), harvest index (%), 1000 grain weight (g), grain (n o plot −1 ), grain and biomass yield (g spike −1 ), harvest index spike −1 (%) and straw yield (g spike −1 ). A disruptive selection intensity of 7.0 % (triticale) and 11.2% (bread wheat) was applied in both directions of the frequency distributions for the selection index. The 20 S 1 triticale families (ten per group) and 20 S 1 bread wheat families (ten per group) were evaluated during 2003. Grain and biological yield (g m −2 ), spikes (n o m −2 ), 1000 grain weight (g), harvest index (%) and grain (n o m −2 ) were measured and the differential and the response to selection were estimated from the S 0 progenies and S 1 derived families, respectively. A higher number of significant differences between the higher and lower index group mean values were observed for the bread wheat germplasm. In both species and for all measured traits, the mean values corresponding to the higher group were greater than those observed in the lower one. These results confirm that using a selection index it is possible to get a harmonic yield improvement in both species.

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., Motzo, R. 2004. Sowing rate and cultivar affect total biomass and grain yield of spring triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) grain in a Mediterranean-type environment. Field Crops Res. 87 :193

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The subject of research was the anther culture response of 186 lines of winter crop triticale coming from two types of crossings: A×B and (A×B)×C. The number of embryoids and green regenerants obtained from particular lines were adopted as property indicators. The examined lines were characterised by a relatively good ability to create either single embryoids or conglomerated embryoids, but the number of green regenerants obtained later on from such structures was generally low. It was found that there were no significant differences between these objects both with regard to the ability to create embryoids and green regenerants in the case of anthers collected from hybrids from simple crossings, whilst there were significant differences (with p=0.05) in the case of hybrids originated from crossings of the type (A×B)×C. The coefficients of heritability of the ability to create embryoids was h 2 =0,682 for anthers coming from hybrids of the type: A×B and h 2 =0,371 for anthers collected from hybrids of the (A×B)×C type. However genetic conditioning of the ability to regenerate green plants was 0.699 and 0.522 respectively. It may thus be supposed that the ability to create embryoids passed onto the next generation would be better with the forms originating from crossing of the A×B type, and the heritability of the ability to create green plants would be similar with both types of hybrids.For both of the groups compared, also the coefficients of variability CV(p) and CV(g) were calculated as well as the coefficients of correlation between the number of embryoids and the number of green regenerants obtained from them at a later phase.

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The natural climate variability may be masked by the anthropogenic made global warming, today. With a warmer climate, drought and excess rainfall conditions could become more frequent and longer lasting. The potential increase of the hazards result stresses and high costs in cereal production. For this reason a long-term study was conducted on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agroecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41’ 60, and E: 220 2’ 80,) on triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.) yield between 1999 and 2006. In 1962, at the trial set up the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H 2 O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hyl 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg −1 , ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P 2 O 5 43 mg kg −1 , AL-K 2 O 60 mg kg −1 in the plowed (0–25 cm) layer. The trial consisted of 32 × 4 = 128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10 × 5 = 50 m 2 . The average fertilizer rates in kg ha −1 year −1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P 2 O 5 ), potassium 90 (K 2 O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO 3 ) and magnesium 140 (MgCO 3 ). The groundwater table had at a depth of 2–3 m below the surface. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was −25% less than for average years. The application N alone or NP and NK treatments led to yield reduction of −19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg caused an −28.3% yield drop. In the wet years the yield decreased by −22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in case of the N, NP and NK nutrition the yield dropped with an −14.1%; and the yield increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. Yield dropped in the very wettest year −43.1% on control soils; −39.3% of N, NP and NK loadings, and −35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationship between rainfall quantity during the vegetation period and N, P, K, Ca, Mg nutrition and yield was characterised by polynomial correlation (control: R = 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0.6452***, NK: R = 0.6998***, NPK: R = 0.5555***, NPKCa: R = 0.5578***, NPKMg: R = 0.4869**, NPK CaMg: R = 0.4341**). However, total regression coefficients ranged from 0.43 to 0.74 in depence on the different nutrient application. Maximum yields of 5.8–6.0 t ha −1 were achieve in the rainfall range of 580–620 mm. At values above and below this domain of the precipitation the grain yield reduced quadratically. So, it can be stated that both drought and excess rainfall conditions resulted dramatically significant negative effects between fertilization (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and triticale yield.

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. 2008. Agronomic and quality characteristics of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) with HMW glutenin subunits 5+10. J. Cereal Sci. 47 :68–78. Vyhnánek T. Agronomic and quality

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Gruszecka, D. 2005. Genetics of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack). In: Górny, A. (ed.), Zarys genetyki zbóż (Introduction to cereal genetics). Institute of Plant Genetics PAS, Poznań, Poland, Vol. 2, pp. 15–121. (In Polish

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( × Triticosecale Wittmack) based on the use of a selection index. Cereal Res. Commun. 34 :1123-1127. Torres L.E. Agronomic performance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and hexaploid

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production in hexaploid Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack). Theor. Appl. Genet. 69 :55–61. Bernard S. Diallel analysis of androgenetic plant production in hexaploid Triticale

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A komposztált szennyvíziszap alkalmas talajjavításra, mivel nagy a szervesanyag- tartalma. A rendszeres komposztkezelés javítja a homoktalaj fizikai tulajdonságait, melyek nagymértékben befolyásolják a talajban lejátszódó kémiai és biológiai folyamatokat (az adszorpciós jelenségeket, az oxidáció-redukció feltételeit, az anyagtranszport lehetőségeit, a biológiai aktivitást, a tápanyagforgalmat), s ezeken keresztül a talaj termékenységét.A Debreceni Egyetem Nyíregyházi Kutatóintézetében 2003-tól vizsgáljuk a szennyvíziszap-komposzt tartamhatását kisparcellás kísérletben, melyben talajfizikai méréseket is végzünk a komposztkezelés hatásainak megállapítására. A komposzt 0, 9, 18 és 27 t·ha−1 dózisban, és a következő összetételben került bedolgozásra a talajba: szennyvíziszap 40%, szalma 25%, riolit 30%, bentonit 5%. A kísérlet vetésforgóban vetett tesztnövényei a tritikále (× Triticosecale Wittmack), kukorica (Zea mays L.) és a zöldborsó (Pisum sativum L.). A talaj térfogattömegének, víztartóképesség-görbéjének és légáteresztő képességének meghatározására bolygatatlan talajmintákat vettünk az 5–10 és 20–25 cm-es talajmélységekből hat ismétlésben. A talajok víztartó képességét homokágy-, homok/kaolinágy-, valamint nyomás membrános készülékkel mértük. A talaj légáteresztő képességének meghatározására Eijkelkamp M1-08.65 típusú készüléket használtunk.A kísérleti parcellák talajainak térfogattömeg-értékeinél tapasztalt nagyfokú heterogenitás megmutatkozik a mért víztartóképesség- és légáteresztőképességértékek — kezelésektől kevésbé függő — nagy szórásában. A térfogattömeg és a légáteresztés között közepesen szoros kapcsolatot (R2 = 0,38) tapasztaltunk. Megállapítottuk, hogy a vizsgált homoktalaj 1,6 g·cm−3 térfogattömeg mellett is — szántóföldi vízkapacitásnak megfelelő nedvességtartalom esetén — „nagyon nagy” légáteresztő képességgel rendelkezik.A kapott terméseredmények alapján, a komposztkezelés hatására a talaj fizikai tulajdonságaiban végbemenő változások kedvezően hatnak a növények fejlődésére, ezáltal a terméshozamra.

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