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Abstract  

Heat capacities of U1–yLayO2 were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. An anomalous increase in the heat capacity curve of each sample was observed similarly to the case of U1–yGdyO2, found recently in our laboratory. As the lanthanum content of U1–yLayO2 increased, the onset temperature of an anomalous increase in the heat capacity decreased and the excess heat capacity increased. The enthalpy of activation (Hf) and the entropy of activation (Sf) of the thermally excited process, which cause the excess heat capacity were obtained to be 2.14, 1.63 and 1.50 eV and 39.4, 34.2 and 31.8 J·K–1·mol–1 for U0.956La0.044O2, U0.910La0.090O2 and U0.858La0.142O2, respectively. The values at zero La content extrapolated by using the data of Hf and Sf for U1–yLayO2 were in good agreement with the experimental values of undoped UO2 so far reported, similarly to the case of Gddoped UO2. The electrical conductivities of U1–yLayO2 (y=0.044 and 0.142) were also measured as a function temperature. No anomaly was seen in the electrical conductivity curve. It may be concluded that the excess heat capacity originates from the predominant contribution of the formation of oxygen clusters and from the small contribution of the formation of electron-hole pairs.

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China is the second biggest trading nation in the world — number one as trade exporter and number two as trade importer. Behind the USA, China has the second strongest economy with a gross domestic product of almost 5 trillion USD in 2009. Despite the global financial crisis the Chinese economy was and is still drastically growing with three main focus areas: increase in labor costs; increasing demand for qualified labor; and a high grade of technology. Linked to the future 12th five-year-plan, China is going to spend 1.5 billion dollars in key-technologies like nuclear power, high speed railway systems, aerospace, energy efficiency, environmental friendly technologies, biotechnologies and information technology. China is trying to change its status from distributor to a leading high-tech provider with high potential. This implicitly means a higher consumption of natural resources and more highly qualified employees. However, the shortage of natural resources poses a great question. Prognoses say that we will need two Earths to cover our steadily rising resource consumption in 2030. To provide this, the economy has to work much more efficiently and regarding climate and resource protection even a total change is necessary. Due to this, Europe’s and China’s future will need a common economic and ecologic strategy to fulfill international requirements of sustainable growth within balanced natural circumstances.

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Hungarian Studies

A Journal of the International Association for Hungarian Studies and Balassi Institute

Following the success of Eugène Sue's serial novel Les Mystères de Paris a pattern emerges in the era's literary market. Sue's works provide a narrative, politico-cultural and economic model with a worldwide impact. These works created a new way of presenting a city, while also developing a type of narrative that sometimes precedes the actual urbanization of an area, thus offering ready-made panels when talking about often unfinished processes. Several Hungarian works following the same literary model were published that used the panels introduced by Sue in relation to a city early in the process of urbanization and promote a distinctly national image of Budapest. The popularity of Sue's works helped the kindred Hungarian novels become successful projects. This piece of research attempts to identify the ways in which these transnational patterns became adapted and domesticated by the earliest Hungarian urban mysteries and helped the emergence of a specifically urban nationalist sentiment.

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The present paper discusses the written tradition of Burgenland Croats currently residing in the South of Slovakia. Before the Second World War this group of Burgenland Croats belonged to Hungary, so the preserved letters of rural residents of the border village Chunova retain a number of features characteristic of the Hungarian orthography of the beginning of last century, lexical borrowings from the languages of the environment (primarily German) and dialect features which have been lost by now. The correspondence from the beginning of the last century reflects the cultural, historical and linguistic situation typical of Burgenland Croats living in the enclave. A study of their letters published recently, in 2017, reveals the traits of their language, everyday life and some features of traditional folk culture.

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The La Fontaine Literature Society was founded in 1920 in Budapest. Its task was to promote the world literature in Hungary and to make Hungarian literature better known abroad.

One of the founders was Béla Vikár, who also translated the Fables of Jean La Fontaine into Hungarian. In my paper I investigate his correspondence between 1920 and 30 and the deed of foundation of the La Fontaine Society. My aim is to describe the place and the role of Finnish and Estonian literatures in the Society's work.

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La religion sabbataires a vu le jour en Transylvanie à la fin du XVIe siècle, dans la foulée de la réforme et de l'unitarisme. Ses fondateurs affichaient l'intention de vivre “comme Jésus” c'est-à-dire également comme au temps de Jésus. Le destin des sabbataires a fini par rejoindre celui des juifs, y compris lors des persécutions du XXe siècle. Quant à leur sensibilité à l'idée de destin et de peuple élu, elle peut être mise en relation avec certains aspects de l'identité hongroise.

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The 20th century witnessed an increasing interest in psychoanalysis and, in relation to it, sexual deviances. Vienna had an outstanding role in this interest because it was where Sigmund Freud worked, and where the psychoanalytic society formed by his disciples was also active. In his volume from 1905, entitled Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, he listed certain forms of child sexuality as sexual deviances. At the same time, the arts often represented the child body both in its innocence, but often also as a sexual object. I think that the publication of a novel which was perceived as belonging to the category of child pornography in Vienna in 1906 can also be seen as part of this process, although it has been discussed earlier independently from other cultural or scientific processes of the turn-of-the-century Vienna. My paper attempts to place this novel into the above detailed context.

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Following the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of 1848–1849 Lajos Kossuth was forced into exile in Turkey. Thanks to intervention on behalf of the American government that he was able to travel to the United States in 1851–52. His visit left a lasting mark on American culture. He made over 500 speeches and public appearances, however his position on slavery led to a controversy eventually undermining his original purpose of securing American support for the potential renewal of the Hungarians’ struggle for freedom.

While anti-slavery activists in the United States, especially William Lloyd Garrison, were looking forward to him openly supporting the abolitionist cause, Kossuth opted for a much-maligned policy of non-interference. In response, Garrison, while admiring Kossuth at first, changed his stance and launched a vitriolic attack in a book-sized publication titled Letter to Louis Kossuth Concerning Freedom and Slavery in the United States (1852).

While the circumstances of Kossuth's visit have been a subject of numerous scholarly essays, I intend to focus on Garrison's text in the forthcoming analysis of its form and content.

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Die wichtigste deutschsprachige Tageszeitung Ungarns, der liberale Pester Lloyd (1854–1944) spielte in der Kulturvermittlung zwischen Ungarn und den anderen europäischen Ländern von Anfang an eine entscheidende Rolle. Um die Jahrhundertwende, als Literatur und Kunst den Erwartungen der institutionalisierten volksnationalen Ästhetik untergeordnet wurden, konnte seine Praxis des regelmäßigen Kulturtransfers in Form von kritischen und theoretischen Veröffentlichungen der Moderne zur Etablierung verhelfen. Der Beitrag stellt die einzelnen Etappen dieses Prozesses mit typischen Textbeispielen dar.

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