A hitújítás korai szakasza arra irányult, hogy az előző kor
építészetétől és művészetétől elhatárolódjon. A zsinati határozatok ebben a
vallásilag átmeneti állapotban próbálták a művészet és építészet helyét a
formálódó egyház életében definiálni. Ha a zsinati határozatokat nézzük,
The paper is a chapter in the systematic exploration of goldsmith's art in historical Hungary. While in another series of publications, the author summarizes the historical information on goldsmith dynasties in various towns, matching it with the extant works. He makes an attempt to redefine the 16–17th century proof-marks. Here, he relies on the registers of Nagyszombat (today: Trnava in Slovakia). In the Addenda he publishes proof-marks and objects who have wrongly attributed to masters from Nagyszombat.
A special iconographic interpretation of the Holy Trinity is represented by an engraving kept in the Strahov abbey library of the Premonstratensian canons of Prague. The print was made after Dionysius Strauss' drawing and is the artist's first extant holy image engraved in copperplate. In the monastery of Hradiško u Olomouce Strauss was regarded as the artist of the order respected for the inventiveness of his themes. It is a known fact from 1695 that he presented a painting on the birthday of prior Bernard Wanzke showing the crucified Christ with the Father and the Holy Spirit with lambs feeding on the blood gushing forth from the Son's side. Undoubtedly, the graphic sheet marked “P. Dion. Straus delin. — J. Tscherning sculp.” was made after the lost painting. The words in the banderole above the composition “ut vitam habeant” (that they may have life) are from St John's gospel (Jn 10,10).
A somewhat modified variant of the theme is a copperplate engraving also from the late 17th century by Johann Gaspar Gutwein (1669–1730) who worked in Prague, Brno, Augsburg, Regensburg and Graz. The print marked “J. G. Gutwein sc. Brunae” probably adorned the flyleaf of a book. This precious specimen of my private collection shows an infant angel with clasped hands behind the cross, with a quotation from St Luke's gospel on the banderole falling down by its elbow: “… parata sunt omnia” (all things are now ready, Luke 14,17). The words refer to the feast of the flock of the Saviour. The blood and water from the side of Christ collected in a pearl-shell refer to the life-giving and maintaining sacraments of baptism and the eucharist from which the scrawny lambs will gain strength.
There is a little known 18th century oil painting in the St Maurice Benedictine monastery of Bakonybél. There are no inscriptions, but white lambs are feeding on the life-giving blood which has cleaned them, flowing from Christ's side into a bowl. The tree of paradise with the serpent is in the background to indicate that Christ's sacrifice on the cross was made in reparation of the original sin: Christ defeated Satan on the cross. This peculiar version of the Holy Trinity representations originated from catholic Moravia in the Tridentine revival of spirituality in Central Europe, as the above described depictions suggest.
The friendship of David and Jonathan is known from the Books of Samuel in the Old Testament. The presentation of the robe, the sword, the bow and the belt is the token of covenant. David’s death lament, an elegy over Jonathan’s bow given to him was called the bow song. Gottfried Bernhard Göz, a painter and graphic artist of Moravian origin working in Augsburg captured the story in an engraving with dotting. His rococo compositions were models for several painters. The oil painting in the diocesan museum of Székesfehérvár was probably made in Göz’s workshop.
The same theme features on the obverse of a 17th century silver coin recently included in the author’s collection. (The German legend reads ICH WILL DIR THUN WAS DEIN HERZ BEGEHRT – SAM. 20. V. 4) The reverse of the medal also expresses fraternity through the figures of Abraham and Lot (inscribed: WIR SIND GEBRUDER – Gen. 13. v. 8.) with well-to-do shepherds and their livestock in the background.
The art of Göz, his excellent knowledge of the Holy Writ and its use in allegories of vitues help us better interpret the baroque iconography.
Sárvár castle was the property of the Nádasdy family from the early 16th century until 1670. Its current pentagonal shape was formed during the time of judge royal Ferenc III Nádasdy, one of the leading art patrons of the 17th century. Its early 17th century state is documented by three inventories (1630, 1646, 1650), and the layout of the interior, the functions and furnishings of the rooms can be reconstructed from the inventory dated 1669. The paper suggests some new dates of construction, explicates the stucco and fresco ornamentation program and on the basis of the furnishing inquiries into the role and function of the castle turned residence during Ferenc Nádasdy's time.
Comparing the inventories of various dates, one finds that Nádasdy first had wing A reconstructed before 1646. Research puts to the mid-17th century the rest of the constructions: building of the C wing and chapel, linkage of gate tower and wing A. Archival sources put the reconstruction to 1650–51. The stateroom was created at that time on the ceiling of which Hans Rudolf Miller painted in 1653 a fresco series of town sieges during the 15-year war. The stuccowork by Andrea Bertinalli framing the frescoes is dated by the paper also to 1653, a different date from what research earlier suggested. The conception of the ceiling decoration was completed before Nádasdy left in early June 1653 for the coronation of Ferdinand IV in Regensburg. Thus the iconography of the frescoes is independent of the thematically similar battle-scene cycle (possibly in oil) seen on the way in Günzburg near Ulm, about which Pál Esterházy travelling with Nádasdy wrote in his diary. Nádasdy had the opportunity to see in Günzburg the now extinct 16 full-length portraits ordered by the previous owner of the castle Karl von Burgau upon the model of the Spanischer Saal in Ambras around 1600. That may have inspired him to have the 20 full-length portraits painted mentioned by the inventory of 1669 in one of the salons of Sárvár.
Contemporaneous with the reconstruction is the staircase beneath the tower, mentioned in an order to stucco artist Andrea Bartinalli in February 1657 in which Nádasdy ordered the plasterwork for the ceiling of the upstairs rooms of wings E and D and the corridor of wing E, as well as a dual coat of arms above the mantelpiece in a room in the E wing. The order reveals that the stucco of three rooms in wing D had been started and Bertinalli was to finish it. Payment reveals that Bertinalli had completed the bulk of the work by the end of 1657. It probably included the ceiling stucco of the corner room in wing D, the only one still extant today. The plaster decoration frames frescoes the themes of which are from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Ingeborg Schemper-Sparholz traced their engraved prototypes to Antonio Tempesta, but this could only be verified for the Narcissus scene. The Perseus and Andromeda story adopts Chrispijn de Passe's work via a mediating print, the models for the rest of the scenes are unknown. The joint interpretation of the fresco themes and the so-far unstudied iconography of the plasterwork could provide the key to the program of the entire ceiling. The stucco putti hold attributes of natural plenitude, fertility, while the Ovid scenes are about accepted love (Perseus and Andromeda, Jupiter and Callisto) or the rejection of love (Narcissus, Venus sends Amor to kindle desire in Pluto for Proserpina who rejects love). The ceiling decoration is the apology of love and female fertility in the corner room that was one of the rooms of the female suite after the mid-century reconstruction of the castle.
Practically nothing is known of the one-time art works in the castle. The inventories reflect numeric data, which reveal that by increasing the number of art works Nádasdy wished to create a representative image in the Sárvár rooms after the rebuilding. The definite functions and furnishing of the different wings are revealed by the May 1669 inventory taken a few months after the death of the count's wife Anna Júlia Esterházy. It shows therefore the state of the interior as it had evolved during one and a half decades' use after the reconstruction. The composition of the furnishing reveals that the described rooms did not serve for actual residence. Apart from the monotony and impersonal character of the description of the furniture the most conspicuous things are the absent objects, particularly in comparison with the description of the actual residence of the family, the castle of Pottendorf. This comparison reveals that in Sárvár pieces of storing furniture, first of all those for keeping clothes and textiles, are missing in Sárvár. There are only two cupboards but they are empty. There is no furniture to hold books, while in Pottendorf there was a Bibliotheca. In Sárvár, except for Nádasdy's bedroom and one of the women's rooms, the beds are not installed, and apart from Nádasdy's suite there are no curtains, draperies, and there is no mirror.
The inventory confirms the earlier research findings: Sárvár did not function as a residence, since before 1650 the family lived in Deutschkreuz, then in Seibersdorf in Lower Austria and from 1660 in Pottendorf. There are not many data about Nádasdy's stay in Sárvár in his itinerary either, which throws new light on the representative modernization of the castle and the need to create a new residence. Concerning functions, it is illumining to compare Sárvár with Deutschkreuz where the family is documented to have spent lengthier periods regularly in the second half of the 1650s with frequent guests. That is probably why around 1657 a two-level “Saalgebäude” of several rooms was built in Deutschkreuz. It must also be attributable to function that the Sárvár castle was representatively impersonal, “Prunkappartement”-like. There are few data to suggest what role the castle was assigned in the 1650s, but they tend to reveal that after the reconstruction and furnishing with art works Sárvár was to be the venue of ceremonial hospitality as the occasional protocol venue of Nádasdy's official matters in Hungary.
A small panel (Hungarian private collection) depicting the scene of giving comission for a portrait was sold off at the Ernst Museum's 34th auction in 1927 as a work by Gonzales Coques. When in 1995 the painting cropped up again, I proposed an attribution to “the circle of Gerard ter Borch” and a dating to around 1650, but the distinctly portrait-like representation of the characters held the promise of a more exact identification. During the investigation I soon arrived at a studio interior in which – according to the traditionally identification – “Daniel Seghers is sitting for his portrait in the atelier of Gonzales Coques”. Auctioned under the name of Coques several times, the authorship of the work has been widely contested by experts – with good reason – and most recently it is only labelled “by a Flemish painter”. As for the sitter, it is quite probable that he is the Jesuit monk Daniel Seghers who painted flower still-lives. Though in his authentic portrait, the one showing him in profile also used by Cornelis de Bie, he is as an older man with a small moustache and beard, his demeanor, his bony face structure and earnest glance are very similar.
I went on looking for the painter of these two scenes among the Flemish followers of Coques on the basis of style criticism and found analogies in the figures of Charles Emmanuel Bizet. However, biographical data made me discard this hypothesis.
Proceeding along the identification of facial features I concluded that the portratist in the two pictures does not resemble any of the known portraits of Coques, but one can recognize Lucas Franchoys the younger on the basis of the engraved portrait also published by Cornelis de Bie. Another figure of the scene can be identified on this basis: Peeter Franchoys sitting by the table, looking at Seghers and pointing at the companion writing next to him. To conclude, the two pictures were painted by Lucas Franchoys II, and the known biographical data allow for a dating between 1645 and 1649.
Further, I have also identified Lucas Franchoys II's features in another two paintings known in the art trade. A small panel shows a man clipping tobacco, probably representing the sense of smell from a series of The Five Senses painted by Lucas Franchoys, hiding a self-portrait in it. The other is a high-quality work by Peeter Franchoys showing his younger brother a few years later when both of them were living in Mechelen.