In Hungary, the concept of “folk song” was clarified at the beginning of the 20th century only, accordingly, there were no “folk songs” noted down in the 18th century. Still, the number of music sources relating to folk music increased significantly in the 18th century. As a result of their scientific analysis the melodic parallels of some five hundred 18th-century tunes were found in the central folk music collection of the Institute for Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. These melodic parallels involve 153 folk song types. In a specific era of folk culture there is always a coexistence of elements and styles of different age. The sources also contain examples of the descending pentatonic styles (that either originates or developed from oriental roots), of the lament style and of the medieval and early modern tunes. Of particular interest are the songs that first appeared in the 17th century, then undergone significant changes in form and rich collection of variants developed around them. The most remarkable result of our research is that contrary to former beliefs regarding its insignificance, the 18th century enriched the Hungarian folk music with some sixty new melody types. One of the most interesting groups of this rather mixed collection of songs is that of the songs in a major key with a narrow compass that seems to be the most characteristic music of the time. Plagal songs in a major key with perceptive functional chords behind their melodies also entered Hungarian tradition at this time. Plagal tunes, unfamiliar to Hungarian folk music, were sometimes transformed into descending tunes. The antecedents of the new Hungarian folk song style hardly feature in these sources — this style probably developed in the late 19th century. However, among the popular art songs that flourished from the 1830s onwards we found about a dozen melody types with a partial or full similarity to 18th-century melodies.
Emődi, András 2002. A nagyváradi székeskáptalan könyvtára a XVIII. században [The library of the Nagyvárad Cathedral Chapter in the 18thcentury]. A Kárpátmedence Kora Ujkori Könyvtárai V. Országos Széchényi Könyvtár - Scriptum, Budapest & Szeged
jegyzőkönyvek bársonyosi határviták kapcsán a 18. századból [Minutes of Witness Hearings about Border Disputes in Bársonyos in the 18thCentury] . In Filep , Antal – Égető , Melinda (eds) Történeti források a XVIII– XIX. századból [Historical Sources
Exorcizmus és erotika. Egy XVIII. századi székelyföldi ördögűzés szokatlan körülményei [Exorcism and Eroticism. The Unusual Cisrcumstances of an 18th -century Exorcism in Székelyland]. Kecskemét : BKMÖ Múzeumi Szervezete . Libelli Transsilvanici 3
Croatia is a country which had throughout the centuries experienced turbulent political life. It is situated at the crossroads of different cultural and artistic influences and, moreover, the point at which the Mediterranean meets Central Europe and closest to the places were East penetrates furthest into the West. As far as the stylistic influences and the reception of style are concerned, the 18th century art in Northern Croatia in most of its aspects corresponds to the features of Central European late Baroque art. This is mostly due to the fact that at that time Croatia was a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, which by its widely extended borders provided a vast frame for the various artists who traveled around, or carried out various commissions of artworks throughout that extensive empire.
According to standard textbooks, the last episode of European New Age plague pandemic died out by 1720 in Marseilles. Despite this allegation, the pandemic continued in well-documented new outbreaks, which attacked and devastated Central and Eastern Europe throughout the first half of the 18 th century. At the beginning, military campaigns spread the infection out of the Ottoman Empire. Later on commercial goods took over this role via land or sea from Asia or out of the eastern Mediterranean region. Finally, the plague in Europe - except Russia and the Ottoman Empire - “died out” virtually by the end of the 18 th century. Explaining this, there many scientific reasons were suggested: 1. Oriental rat fleas as main vectors of infection could not tolerate any more the European weather conditions (although there were no virtual climate changes in the last 300 years). 2. Black rats that lived in close proximity to man, were being outplayed by brown rats living rather outside of human habitats; 3. There emerged less virulent Yersinia strains that caused natural human immunisation. In spite of these suggestions, which may have contributed to the success, joint civil and military health authorities blocked the plague indeed, as a result of disciplined and relentless law enforcement. In Hungary, respectively in the Hapsburg Empire, well-advised health legislation backed up the effectiveness of local authorities. Following the last great devastation in 1738-1740, the General Norm of Health Service - a voluminous decree - summed up by 1770 all the time honoured empiric rules of foregoing centuries. It can be excellently demonstrated, how exactly the empiric rules discovered a century later met scientific facts of physiology and microbiology.
The reform of the Council of Trent made great influence on the liturgical development of all Europe. That was also the fact in Hungary: in 1630 the local synod of Nagyszombat accepted the introduction of the Tridentine rite into the Hungarian Church. Nevertheless some of dioceses - existed more independently - protested against this decision and insisted on the continuation of their own medieval traditions. Among these dioceses Zagreb was the greatest “Protestant”. The cathedral itself guarded his medieval tradition till 1788. Through this largely documented processional practise of Zagreb Cathedral (ten manuscripts and one printed processional from the 14th up to the 18th centuries) one can follow the particularities of a liturgy preserved isolated: the basically remained liturgical chants were influenced by some new practise, mainly simplifications but additions as well.