This article would like to serve as an addition to the perceived historical picture of Hungary in the Anglo-Saxon world, relying on articles published in British but mainly in American daily newspapers and magazines in the 1920s and 1930s. While some of the articles were by Hungarian authors or authors with Hungarian origins, the majority was not and, so they give a good indication about the impressions that Anglo-Saxon peoples were both having and getting about Interwar Hungary. One can find voices from both the Left and Right of the political spectrum, positive and negative interpretations of Hungary alike in such well-known periodicals as The New Republic and Foreign Affairs, or lesser known outlets as The Living Age or Current History. In addition, the study invites the opinion of several American ministers who served in Hungary in the examined period. There unpublished opinions about their host country add further nuances to the picture of Hungary and Hungarians in American minds. These opinions together, ranging from domestic policies to the foreign policy issues that all sprang from the Paris peace treaties, also contributed to the larger understanding of Hungarian political and cultural issues. This picture is a colorful one, spanning from politics to economics, from cultural to psychological aspects.
The interwar period was crucial for the development of Polish–Ukrainian relations in the following decades. Political commentaries, studies in linguistics, social sciences, and legislative acts from this period reflect the changes of Polish attitudes towards the Ukrainian minority. In the late 1920s and 1930s, the traditional and exonymic terminology Rusin and ruski was gradually replaced by the new forms Ukrainiec and ukraiński.
The paper discusses the strategies and the rhetorical elements of the Norwegian Inner Mission during a period of political and cultural conflict the 1920’s and 1930’s.Special attentions paid to understanding the ambivalence between premodern values and modern strategies as they were expressed by one of the leaders of one of the inner mission organisations, professor of theology Ole Hallesby (1879 –1961).In his th nking, the explicit aim of the nner mission activities was the rechristianization of Norway, the means were actions organised according to the modern soc ety, but the cultural and soc al ideal was the non-secularzed, premodern Norway – as opposed to urban pluralism. Probably, this ambivalence made the inner mission strategy a political failure.
The collection presenting is a rather variegated one, a miscellany. It contains postcards written in Hungarian to the young violonists Adila (nickname for Adrienne) and Jelly Arányi between 1902 and 1907, letters to their youngest sister, pianist Titi (nickname for Hortense), from the early 1920s, two Hungarian letters to the ethnomusicologist Béla Vikár and one to the pianist Ernő Balogh, German letters to the pianist Gottfried Galston and to the British composer Philip Heseltine (alias Peter Warlock) from 1920 and 1921, respectively. Three letters in French were written to the musicologist Henry Pruničres and Robert Bernard (both of them chief editors of La Revue Musicale) in the 1920s and 1930s while letters, some of them previously unpublished, were addressed to one of Bartók's most devoted American pupil Wilhelmine Creel from the late 1920s and early 1940s. The Hungarian letters are published in English tradition side by side with their original texts.
This article examines American cultural influences in Brazil, particularly in terms of translations published in Brazil. It proposes that the great majority of American books published occupied a conservative position in the Brazilian literary system, and in certain periods, such as the post-1964 military dictatorship, the US government financed the publication of American works translated into Portuguese in order to help to provide the right-wing military government with a cultural focus. However, the importation of American literature has been seen in very different ways: in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the cheapness of American culture and the global aims of the future superpower were already being criticized. For others, America meant democracy and an economic model to emulate. In the 1920s and 1930s the publisher, translator and writer of children's stories, Monteiro Lobato, saw the importation of American ideas and technology as a way of taking Brazil out of its backwardness, and expected translations of American works to counterbalance the dominant French trends. In the most repressive years of the military dictatorship, from the end of 1968 to the mid-seventies, the translation of Beat poetry acted as a form of protest.
This paper addresses the early Bartók reception in Denmark in the 1920's and 1930's. The Danish Bartók reception undergoes significant changes and constitutes at least two distinct Bartók images. First we meet the 'international', 'modernist' Bartók, seen as one of the representatives of the 'Neue Musik', in the German sense of genuinely new, contemporary music. This is due to the fact, that Bartók's music from the first moment on was well represented in the repertoire of the Danish societies for contemporary music. The second image is quite different. It emerges in the late 1920s and is present at the latest in the reception of the three concerts, Bartók gave in Copenhagen in 1929. This is an image referring to Bartók as one of the leaders of what is referred to as the 'real new music', which has overcome the destructive powers of modernist expressionism and has formed a genuinely new music founded on the vital forces of unspoiled, original folk music. This second image includes other works as important and excludes some of the works important to the earlier image as non-important. It sometimes values the same works as valuable and important, using other arguments and focusing on other aspects of the works. This means, that there is evidence of a re-interpretation of the Bartók-oeuvre as part of forming this second Bartók image. These images share some international trends in Bartók reception, but have also their own specifics compared to e.g. German Bartók reception, where the Dance Suite (1923) played a crucial role, which was not the case in Copenhagen.
Budaörs Airport is a work of modern architecture built in 1937 in a country that was fundamentally conservative in its political outlook, and was the first public airport in Hungary that met European standards. It was designed by the architects Virgil Bierbauer and László Králik. The airport architecture made use of the lessons learned, both positive and negative, from countless airports in other countries. In this regard it successfully overcame the technical and other problems faced by designers in European countries, which had made it necessary to redesign the airports in these countries in the midthirties. The building was simultaneously modern and pragmatic. Its overhead view, with the side wings attached to the circular passenger hall, clearly shows the purpose of the building. Budaörs Airport was built as a transit airport: it was intended to have an important geopolitical role in connecting air passengers from Central Europe with other countries and continents in the world. In the 1920s, countless airports had been constructed in Europe to deal with air traffic between the different countries and between Europe and their colonies. Hungary, however, had long been excluded from this development, due to the terms of the peace treaties that concluded the First World War. It was not until the mid-1930s that the country had the chance to break free from these restrictions. Budaörs Airport became a symbol both of this newfound liberty and of the start of modern civil aviation, while its creation was also closely linked to the changing lifestyle of the 1920s and 1930s.
The interior of the airport was also designed to meet the expectations of the modern human with an interest in all the new things of the world. The interior decoration of the passenger hall was quite innovative: bearing in mind the philosophical background underlying modern movements in art, it combined the compositional approach of painting (aeropittura, Expressionism) with the techniques of photomontage and murals. This composition, known by the title of “The Experience of Flight,” aimed to fill the room with a vision of flight, based partly on realistic and partly on imaginary images, to inspire passengers arriving in the passenger hall, as well as whoever accompanied them. Running all the way around the upstairs balustrade, the enormous photomontage – photofrieze, photomural – was the result of collaboration between the architect Virgil Bierbauer and the painter and photographer Ada Ackermann (Mrs Elemér Marsovszky), and was made using aerial photographs from Hungary and Europe.
By presenting Budaörs Airport in detail, this study is intended as a contribution to investigations into the unique modern architectural world of airport architecture and to the evaluation of the decorative and propagandistic role played by photography.
This paper reveals little-known episodes from A. Peshkovsky's scientific biography and analyses some fragments of his books and articles in the 1920s and 1930s that became the focus of linguistic discussions and showed ambiguous ideological situation in the science of that time. Special attention is paid to the formation of A. Peshkovsky as a linguist and methodist. His first works on “school and scientific grammar” that laid the foundations of the modern approach to the study of the theory and practice of syntax are analysed.
It is noted that the studies by A. Peshkovsky teetered at the level of implementing the ideas of the old Moscow linguistic school of academicians Fortunatov and Shakhmatov, while gravitating toward the insight of A. Potebnya and yet showing at the same time a different way of understanding grammatical ideas. The author claims that A. Peshkovsky went from the traditional diachronic analysis in the direction of the formal approach, while not abandoning “the psychological perception of the word”. A. Peshkovsky, a reformer taking a stand in his search and linguistic experiments against the Marrist and tunnel-visioned understanding of the tasks of Soviet linguistics and methodological science, was subjected to unfair criticism for his stance.
The discussions that took place at that time testify to the consistency and scientific integrity of the scientist's views in the era of the struggle against “eclecticism”, “formalism”, and “incorrigible Indo-Europeanism”. The paper presents some instances of correspondence disputes by V. Voloshinov and M. Bakhtin with A. Peshkovsky on the issues in relationship of grammar and stylistics. His opponents believed that “grammar detached from the semantic and stylistic side of speech inevitably degenerates into scholasticism”. Drawing on materials from archives and personal collection, the author of this paper gives unique facts of the lexicographical activity of A. Peshkovsky in the early 1920s related to his work on the explanatory dictionary of the Russian literary language (not published).
The closing part of the paper analyses the dispute between L. Timofeev and A. Peshkovsky. It is stated that “the new theory of the rhythm of prose” by A. Peshkovsky and his works on psychophonetics caused an ambiguous reaction in the philological community and contributed to the activation of research seeking for a “system of division of prose into units” and other experiments on the study of literary texts. Consideration is also given to the works by A. Peshkovsky in the 1930s, in which the scientist solved new problems in the field of formal characteristics of words and word combinations, wrote about the functioning of literary speech as well as the role of intonation in the formation of the syntactic structure of the sentence. Emphasis is laid on the originality and experimental character of many theses by A. Peshkovsky further developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
in the 1920sand1930s in Hungary], in:
2007/4 (הוקתה) (in press)
, Norbert: 2007d Rebbék, gyógyfürdők, tóraifjak és kóser penziók. Magyarországi orthodox kóser turizmus a 19. század végén és a 20
Structures in Autobiographical Works of Yugoslav Female Writers in the 1920sand1930s In the focus of the comparative study are four autobiographical works of Yugoslav female writers. The book Moja pota [My Way, 1933] by Marija Kmet (1891–1974) is written