The development of geomagnetic research in the 19th century is discussed in detail. Beginning with the Göttingen Magnetic Society (Gauss-Weber), scientific activity developed under von Humboldt's influence and reached a peak during the First International Polar Year (1882--1883). This was a broad international co-operation, for which new instruments were constructed and new aspects of the geomagnetic studies were opened, including solar-terrestrial physics (Sun -- aurora -- Earth's atmosphere).
The psychological concept of the uncanny
has been established in studies by E. Jentsch (1906) and S. Freud (1919). On the grounds of cultural and textual references, which can be found in these studies, one might regard the uncanny as a discourse construct contained in various literary, evaluative, and visual texts stretching from the late 18th century to the First World War. In my paper, I wish to discuss the assumption that the scherzo genre, commonly seen as founded on Haydn’s opus 33 string quartets and coming to a first fruition in various Beethoven cycles shows a particular propensity to act as the musical vehicle for an uncanny quality. The closer scrutiny of two “programmatic” scherzi (those are the 3rd movement of Mahler’s 2nd Symphony and
by Dukas) might shed light on the advantages of a genre-oriented approach when musical meaning is concerned.
Contemporary research on the history of the Slovene language have proved the existence of Central and Eastern Slovene (Eastern Styrian and Prekmurje) standard norms. The Eastern Styrian standard language is the result of a somewhat belated enlightenment in that part of Slovenia and already before Dajnko there were tries to standardise it. The wave of Svetourban was not successful, Primic's Graz wave (Slovene society) also failed due to the unhappy fate of the initiator, that is why the third attempt, this time carried out by Dajnko, was successful. In Styria, the lexicographical work was intensive, despite the fact that before the renowned Pleteršnik only two dictionaries had been published-by Čebul (1789) and by Murko (1833). The oldest preserved manuscript dictionary is Apostel's (1760), which was followed by an etymological attempt by Popovič (1789) and a dictionary by Zagajšek (1773− 1790/91), in the 19th century followed Harmann's lexicographical attempt (ca. 1803), Alič's notes in the Adelung (ca. 1840), dictionary by Penn (1854), Miklošič's dictionary material (1849−1855) and a rich Styrian vocabulary by Caf (1834-1874). In addition to these dictionaries, a lot of fragmental dictionary material was produced, which in the 19th century rounded up the efforts of Styrians for linguistic reference books of this type. The Styrian lexicography had always taken a positive direction in attempting to unify the standard norm in Slovenia.
Following the success of Eugène Sue's serial novel Les Mystères de Paris a pattern emerges in the era's literary market. Sue's works provide a narrative, politico-cultural and economic model with a worldwide impact. These works created a new way of presenting a city, while also developing a type of narrative that sometimes precedes the actual urbanization of an area, thus offering ready-made panels when talking about often unfinished processes. Several Hungarian works following the same literary model were published that used the panels introduced by Sue in relation to a city early in the process of urbanization and promote a distinctly national image of Budapest. The popularity of Sue's works helped the kindred Hungarian novels become successful projects. This piece of research attempts to identify the ways in which these transnational patterns became adapted and domesticated by the earliest Hungarian urban mysteries and helped the emergence of a specifically urban nationalist sentiment.
Time dependencies of Bradford distributions are investigated for 19th-century mathematics and for 20th-century logic. To facilitate
comparisons, for the representation of empirical Bradford distributions “Pareto's law” and Lorenz diagrams are used. It is
shown that the character of a Bradford distribution (including the “core zone” and the “Groos droop”) depends on the stage
in the development of a scientific field and that it varies with the time-span considered.
Mária Comensoli, who studied under Bartók in the mid-1920s, reports that her teacher used “peculiar fingerings and peculiar wrist and arm technique.” Examining such comments and the recordings of the composer-pianist, it becomes clear that Bartók played the piano partly according to the 19th-century performance practice. He frequently played chords in arpeggio, even when there were no markings of arpeggio in the score, and he respected the tone color of each finger by relying on the technique of leaping. Contemporary documents suggest that one of Bartók’s technical advantages was the flexibility of his wrists. In Bartók’s case it may have been a fruit of a conscious training by István Thomán. The writings of the Liszt-pupil Thomán suggest that, like his master, he valued the “active” use of wrists, even though he basically supported the modern, “synthetic” piano technique propagated by Breithaupt, who consistently recommended the “passive” use of the wrists. It is likely that, through Thomán, Bartók learned many things from the 19th-century performance practice.
The present article offers new evidence on the Unger playing-card making family of Győr, Western Transdanubia, as the result of a cross-disciplinary study. Mátyás Unger the Elder (1789–1862) and his like-named son Mátyás the Younger (1824–1878) produced various types of playing-cards from the early to mid-19th century. In particular, their cards, their iconography, design and production process will be analysed. The family is best known for their cards with Sopron (Oedenburg) pattern. Also discussed will be the role of Mátyás the Elder’s second eldest son Alajos Unger as a possible designer of the later Unger cards, which were of considerably higher quality than the earlier known ones by Mátyás Unger the Elder. The hitherto little-known Alajos Unger was trained as a draughtsman and painter first at the National Drawing School of his hometown and then, between 1833 and 1842, at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts, particularly under Leopold Kupelwieser (1796–1862). Finally an innovative outside-in bottom-up method for gaining further, reliable insight into 19th century artisanal playing-card manufacturing will be proposed to determine the size, output and profitability of the Unger workshop based on material-flow simulation.
This is the sixth part of a series of publications about the history of goldsmith's art in Hungary based on archival sources, registrars, citizens’ registers, guild documents, tax registers processed by cities and regions. The goldsmiths and silversmiths revealed by the above documents by name are compared with the old research literature to rectify its data on the one hand, and on the other, goldsmith's marks and objects are attributed to the particular artists. The present publication reviews the history of goldsmith's art in Nagyszombat (today Trnava, Slovakia), the first part of which – the 15–17th century – was released in Művészettörténeti Értesítő 2009/1. Now the equally rich output of the 18–19th centuries is taken stock of, together with the names of several artists. Some published art works are known from public collections, others from private owners or art dealers.
The idea of ‘national’ in Croatian 19th-century music shows evolutionary tendencies, which can be articulated in four phases. It started in the period 1800–1830 as a construct leading towards higher general musical standards, displaying universality above particularity as its ideal. It continued in the period 1830–1850 with pragmatic treatment of music as incidental to poetry, supporting non-musical, mostly political issues, where universality equaled particularity. It achieved in the period 1850–1870 the status of a substantial part in the scholarly re-construction of national history, still equaling universality with particularity. Finally, as a concept of ethnic or national art music, it reached in the period 1870–1916 a status of general interest in national cultural life and education, displaying particularity above universality.
Authors:Frank Havemann, Michael Heinz, and Roland Wagner-Döbler
According to authors like H. E. Stanley and others, growth dynamics of university research displays a quantitative behaviour similar to the growth dynamics of firms acting under competitive pressure. Features of such behaviour are probability distributions of annual growth rates or the standard deviation of growth rates. We show that a similar statistical behaviour can be observed in the growth dynamics of German university enrolments or in the growth dynamics of physics and mathematics, both for the 19th century. Since competitive pressure was generally weak at that time, interpretations of statistical similarities as to pointing to a “firm-like behaviour” are questionable.