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In this paper we will prove Itô’s formula for Brownian motion in the case of fC 2 (ℝ), using a discrete Itô’s formula.

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Abstract  

We show that as processes in (c, d, t) ∈ C(R 2 × R + 1)

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\frac{{\int_c^d {(L_t^{x + h} - L_t^x )^2 dx - 4h} \int_c^d {L_t^x dx} }} {{h^{3/2} }}\mathop \Rightarrow \limits^\mathcal{L} \left( {\frac{{64}} {3}} \right)^{1/2} \int_c^d {L_t^x d\eta (x)}$$ \end{document}
as h → 0 for Brownian local time L t x. Here η(x) is an independent two-sided Brownian motion.

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We prove that the centered three-dimensional Wiener sausage can be strongly approximated by a one-dimensional Brownian motion running at a suitable time clock. The strong approximation gives all possible laws of iterated logarithm as well as the convergence in law in terms of process for the normalized Wiener sausage. The proof relies on Le Gall [10]șs fine L 2-norm estimates between the Wiener sausage and the Brownian intersection local times.

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Firstly, we compute the distribution function for the hitting time of a linear time-dependent boundary ta + bt, a ≥ 0, b ∈ ℝ, by a reflecting Brownian motion. The main tool hereby is Doob’s formula which gives the probability that Brownian motion started inside a wedge does not hit this wedge. Other key ingredients are the time inversion property of Brownian motion and the time reversal property of diffusion bridges. Secondly, this methodology can also be applied for the three-dimensional Bessel process. Thirdly, we consider Bessel bridges from 0 to 0 with dimension parameter δ > 0 and show that the probability that such a Bessel bridge crosses an affine boundary is equal to the probability that this Bessel bridge stays below some fixed value.

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This is a brief account on how we have entertained ourselves in the last two years, that is, a summary of the results we have obtained in a joint work with E. Csáki, M. Csörgő and P. Révész on random walks on a comb.

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We show that Pitman’s theorem relating Brownian motion and the BES (3) process, as well as the Ray-Knight theorems for Brownian local times remain valid, mutatis mutandis, under the limiting laws of Brownian motion penalized by a function of its one-sided maximum.

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We describe the limit laws, as t → ∞, of a Bessel process ( R s , st ) of dimension d ∈ (0, 2) penalized by an integrable function of its local time L t at 0, thus extending our previous work of this kind, relative to Brownian motion.

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