The aim of the paper is to show that the two testimonies on Andronicus' theory of physical change give a coherent picture. Both accounts stress that the factor responsible for change is not necessarily to be sought for outside of the things that change. Their change is due as much to their inner constitution as to external agents. Andronicus' view resembles Galen's critique of the Aristotelian position and there is a possibility that both authors drew on Stoic sources.
Authors:L. Barral, J. Cano, A. J. López, J. López, P. Nogueira and C. Ramírez
The diffusive and dynamic mechanical behavior of the DGEBA/1,3-BAC epoxy resin system was studied during water absorption. The diffusion of water was investigated at 100% relative humidity, by immersion of specimens in water at 60, 80 and 100°C. In all absorption experiments, water diffusion followed Fick's law. Diffusion coefficients and saturated water concentrations are given for these temperatures. The activation energy for diffusion was determined from the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. The value obtained was 31.2 kJ mol−1. Dynamic mechanical analysis of samples immersed in 100°C water and with various water contents showed both a shift of Tg, defined by thetanδ peak, to lower temperatures and a slight decrease in the dynamic modulus in the presence of water. These effects are probably a result of plasticization.
Social network analysis (SNA) is one of the fields in the social sciences which went through a huge development in the last two decades. With the availability of new tools and methods, in-depth analysis of huge networks became possible resulting in important results at various fields. Despite this advancement, the strength of a tie — a foundation of this theory — is still a hot topic in SNA. This paper aims to show that there is a connection between the extent of fair behaviour and friendship and thus to suggest that the extent of fairness may be used as another measure for tie strength. An analytical utility model is introduced including fairness and tie strength. The model is analyzed and an experimental method is shown to test the model. The paper also introduces pilot results.
Authors:Tural Makhmudov, Maria Konovalova, Olga Kuzmina and Natalia Persteneva
This article aims to explore the relationship of the shadow economy with the institutional environment and develop practical recommendations for government policies around the world, and particularly in Russia. The urgency of the issue under research is caused by the existing need to study the shadow economy in order to find ways to reduce its scale and level out its negative externalities. Despite the fact that most of the papers focus on tax burden as a fundamental determinant of the shadow economy, the authors of this article believe that institutional tools can expand the boundaries of research on the content of the shadow economy as an economic category. Statistical analysis of 105 countries with different development levels revealed a stronger correlation between the quality of institutions and the size of the shadow economy than the one between total tax burden and the size of the shadow economy. The findings of this article can be useful in developing state strategies for combating the shadow economy and carrying out economic policies of the state as a whole.
The paper gives an interdisciplinary overview of the emerging field of spirituality and business. It uses insights from business ethics, theology, neuroscience, psychology, gender studies, and philosophy to economics, management, organizational science, and banking and refers to different religious convictions including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, the Baha’i faith, and the North-American aboriginal worldview. The authors argue that the materialistic management paradigm has failed. They explore new values for post-materialistic management: frugality, deep ecology, trust, reciprocity, responsibility for future generations, and authenticity. Within this framework profit and growth are no longer ultimate aims but elements in a wider set of values. Similarly, cost-benefit calculations are no longer the essence of management but are part of a broader concept of wisdom in leadership. Spirit-driven businesses require intrinsic motivation for serving the common good and using holistic evaluation schemes for measuring success. The Palgrave Handbook of Business and Spirituality, edited by the authors, is a response to developments that simultaneously challenge the “business as usual” mindset.
This study attempts to investigate how Hungarians think about life. By applying a nationwide representative survey of Hungarian adults, we wished to answer the following two research questions: a) what are the major metaphorical conceptualizations of life among Hungarians?; and b) what factors, such as socio-economic status and basic value orientations, might influence the prevalence for the metaphors used to talk about life? Our results suggest that there are considerable generational differences: while the negative mindset (in the form of more negative metaphors) is still common within the older generation, there is a shift towards a more positive and more “American” conceptualization of life among younger people in Hungary.
The article refers to a definition of globalisation in three perspectives, namely the development of territorial boarders and in particular the redefinition of regions, the development of the division of labour and distribution of power, and the changed role of culture. The latter is thereby not least understood as a new culture of capitalism. With this orientation it is aimed at developing a historical perspective on globalisation that refers not simply on an increasing loss of borders. Instead, the argument is directed to the understanding more the actual background of changes in world-capitalism by investigating a broad outline of the changing process of production. In this light, globalisation is not seen as a linear process but a matter of permanent ‘negotiations’ and reorganisation.
Hayek’s theory of socio-cultural evolution is a generalization of his theory on spontaneous market order. Hayek explains both the emergence of market and social institutions serving as a social basis for that order within the framework of a unified evolutionary logic. This logic interprets the emergence and survival of spontaneous order and group-level rules of conduct as an unintended consequence of human action. In order to explain the emergence of social norms exclusively on the basis of methodological individualism, one would have to give up an exclusively evolutionary explanation of these norms. Since Hayek applies the invisible-hand explanation to the investigation of social norms, he combines the position of methodological individualism with functionalist-evolutionary arguments in his analysis. Hayek’s theory of socio-cultural evolution represents a theory in the framework of which methodological individualism and functionalism do not crowd out but complement each other.
Ever since Goldin (1995) proposed the idea that there is a U-shaped female labor force participation rate function in economic development, empirical research is stunned by the question why the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are characterized by such low rates of female labor force participation. This gap in labor economics research is all the more perplexing since gender equality, particularly in education and employment, significantly contributes to economic growth. The research strategy of this paper is within a relatively new tradition in labor market research, initiated by Besamusca et al. (2015), which does not exclude the “religious factor” and what the authors call “gender ideology”. Our analysis of the “gender ideology” of Islamism and gender values is based on an empirical analysis of World Values Survey data. In recent economic theory, Carvalho (2013) maintained that Muslim veiling is a strategy for integration, enabling women to take up outside economic opportunities while preserving their reputation within the community. The empirical data clearly support a pessimistic view. We show that Muslim Feminism, which according to our analysis implies the rejection of Islamism and the veil, and the democracy movement in the Muslim world, are closely interrelated. Thus, it is imperative that Western Feminism develops solidarity with Muslim Feminism, and that labor economics stop excluding the religious factor from the analytical frameworks explaining low female labor force participation rates.