The drought tolerance of six green-and yellow-podded varieties of green beans with different genetic backgrounds was tested in the phytotron. During the week prior to flowering the plants were kept either at 25/15°C (day/night) or at high temperature (30/15°C), with RH 75% and optimum water supplies. The heat-stressed plants were then divided into three groups; the first was returned to the control (25/15°C) chamber (RH 75%, optimum water supplies), while the second and third were exposed to mild drought stress (RH 60%, 50% water) at temperatures of 30/15°C and 35/25°C, respectively, throughout the flowering period.The varieties survived the short period of heat stress (30/15°C) prior to flowering without damage provided the temperature during flowering was reduced to 25/15°C and the water supplies were optimum. There was a sharp increase in the carotene level in the leaves of drought-stressed plants when the temperature during flowering was 30/15°C, but in plants exposed to 35/25°C during flowering the level dropped to near the control level. The latter group exhibited considerable damage, with a reduction in the water-soluble antioxidant content (ACW: antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances) and the chlorophyll
content compared with the control.The antioxidant content (ACW) in the dark green leaves of green-podded varieties was lower than in the yellow-podded varieties and did not change as the result of drought and heat stress. In yellow-podded varieties, however, there was a significant decline in ACW in response to stress. Differences between the varieties in their adaptability to drought and heat could be detected as changes in the chlorophyll and carotene contents of the leaves even at 30/15°C.
Authors:W. Wiczkowski, D. Szawara-Nowak, T. Sawicki, J. Mitrus, Z. Kasprzykowski, and M. Horbowicz
The aim of the study was to analyse the content of phenolic acids, total phenolic compounds, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant capacity in cotyledons and hypocotyl of five cultivars of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprout. This study presents the first broad profile of phenolic acids occurring in buckwheat microgreen seedlings. In the hypocotyl and cotyledons trans-cinnamic acid and its derivatives: o-, m-, and p-coumaric acids (2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxycinnamic), synapic acid (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic), caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic), and two isomers of ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic) have been identified. Among the benzoic acid derivatives hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic), gallic (3,4,5-dihydroxybenzoic) and syringic (4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic) were found in the organs. In addition to those mentioned, the organs of buckwheat sprouts contain chlorogenic acid as well. The contents of all analysed phenolics were substantially higher in the cotyledons than in the hypocotyl of buckwheat sprouts, except for chlorogenic and caffeic acids. Trans-cinnamic acid was the major phenolic acid in both organs. In the cotyledons, a significant, positive linear correlation between the TEAC, ORAC, PLC-ACW values and content of total phenolic compounds, and also between DPPH and total phenolic acids were found. In the hypocotyl correlations between the DPPH, TEAC, and ORAC and proanthocyanidins content, between TEAC and total phenolic compounds, and between total phenolic acids and PCL-ACW were found.
This numerical study investigates a circular cylinder placed in a uniform stream and moving along a slender figure-8-path, using a 2D computational method based on the finite difference method. The effects of in-line amplitude of oscillation and of frequency ratio are investigated. Computations for varying amplitude values were carried out at Re = 150, 200 and 250 for a clockwise orbit (in the upper loop). Time-mean and rms values of force coefficients yielded smooth curves and tended to increase with amplitude.
The effect of frequency ratio was investigated at Re = 200, 250 and 300 in the lock-in domain for both clockwise (CW) and anticlockwise (ACW) orientation. Results differ substantially depending on the direction of orientation. Mechanical energy transfer was always positive in ACW direction, which may lead to vortex-induced vibration, and always negative for CW orientation. The time-mean of drag was much lower for CW over the whole frequency ratio domain investigated. For the CW orbit vortex switches were found at specific frequency ratios at Re = 250 and 300. Limit cycle curves for the CW orbit before and after a jump were symmetric, mirror images, and quite complex, while vorticity contours were close to symmetry. These results indicate the possibility of symmetry-breaking bifurcation.
Authors:Eszter Laczkó-Zöld, Andrea Komlósi, Timea Ülkei, Erzsébet Fogarasi, Mircea Croitoru, Ibolya Fülöp, Erzsébet Domokos, Ruxandra Ştefănescu, and Erzsébet Varga
Zheng , J. , Yang , B. , Ruusunen , V. , Laaksonen , O. , Tahvonen , R. , Hellsten , J.
Protocol for the Determination of Antioxidative Capacity of water soluble compounds (ACW) with PHOTOCHEM®, code number: ACW-Kit , 2007
Authors:Madison Stange, Alexander C. Walker, Derek J. Koehler, Jonathan A. Fugelsang, and Mike J. Dixon
differences in thinking style, frequency of scratch card gambling behavior, and problematic gambling.
MS and ACW wrote the manuscript. All authors conceived of the idea for the study and approved the design