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In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 74 barley accessions; 15 landraces (Hordeum vulgare) and 59 wild accessions (twenty-one Hordeum spontaneum, ten Hordeum bulbosum, thirteen Hordeum murinum and fifteen Hordeum marinum). A total of 66 alleles were detected at 12 SSR loci, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus in the entire samples. The average number of alleles (4.2) per locus was higher in H. vulgare and H. spontaneum, reflecting more genetic diversity within these two species compared with the other species. All index values of genetic diversity revealed that there was higher genetic diversity within H. vulgare landraces than within the wild species, indicating that cultivation unlikely to have caused a loss of genetic diversity in cultivated barley compared with its wild relatives. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 31% of the total observed variation was accounted for among species. Based on neighbor-joining clustering, the five species were classified into three main groups: (i) all accessions of H. marinum and H. bulbosum plus two accessions of H. murinum; (ii) H. vulgare and H. spontaneum accessions, in small, separated groups; and (iii) the remaining accessions of H. murinum. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for SSR data also supported the neighbor-joining clustering. These results have important implications for barley germplasm characterization, improvement, molecular systematics and conservation.

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The genetic diversity of 12 Atriplex halimus L. populations collected throughout its natural range in Morocco has been studied by using sequences of nrDNA ITS region. Within-population genetic diversity was high in comparison to others species with similar life histories and ecological traits. Most of genetic variation detected by AMOVA resided within populations (94%), relative to the amount of variation among populations (6%). The level of populations differentiation (FST = 0.06) was low, which corresponds with the high level of gene flow (4.00) revealed between populations. Differentiation among ecological groups of populations accounted only for 1.23% of the total ITS variation, which indicates that climatic conditions did not have an effect of population's structuration or that this differentiation is obviously not related to ITS markers. Furthermore, very low genetic differentiation (FCT = 0.015) was observed between regions (Moroccan populations versus American population). Strangely enough, geographic distances were not correlated to genetic differentiation between the populations (r = 0.06, P = 0.5). The structuration of populations in five groups was not operated according to their bioclimatic type. The data obtained in this assay could play a crucial role to establish efficient strategies for genetic resources conservation and to work out the scheme of breeding programs of Atriplex.

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We applied population memetic models to the analysis of cultural variation among 11 European reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) populations belonging to two subspecies groups differing in bill morphology. We tested whether patterns of meme diversity within and among populations and between the two subspecies groups correspond to patterns of variation in bill morphology. Within-population meme diversity was high and the degree of memetic divergence within groups was significant and higher among southern thick billed populations than among northern thin billed populations. There was, however, no significant memetic difference between the two subspecies groups. Tests of correlation between all groups indicated that memetic variation is associated with geographical distance and not with morphological variation. The results suggest a demographic structure of reed bunting populations similar to that of island populations of other bird species. The lack of memetic differences between them indicates that populations are not culturally isolated, despite the morphological, ecological and genetic differences. We discuss possible evolutionary explanations of the patterns of variation found.

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.1086/675977 Meirmans , P. G. ( 2012 ): AMOVA-based clustering of population genetic data. – J. Heredity 103 ( 5 ): 744 – 750 . https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/ess047 Meirmans , P. G

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Climate change has significantly affected wheat yield. Many studies have suggested that rising temperatures could be harmful to cereals around the world. Thus, the valorization of the desert wheat resources is essential to improve the resistance of this species to climate change. In this context, twenty-eight different local Saharan bread wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) genotypes were described using ten preselected SSR markers. The tested SSRs produced a total number of 20 alleles with an allelic size ranged from 100 pb (WMC261) to 400 pb (WMC257). The allele frequency varied from 0.1 for the allele 230 pb (WMC156) to 1 for the alleles 187 pb, 310 pb (WMC97, WMC168). Likewise, the PIC values ranged from 0 (WMC97, WMC168) to 0.5 (WMC327, WMC233), with an average of 0.34 and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0 to 0.88, with an average of 0.55. The molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest level of intra-population differentiation of local Saharan bread wheat (97%) and the statistical geometric distributions based on PCoA, NJ method and structure analysis confirmed the existence of four major classes of bread wheat. These results substantiate the previous researches based on the morphological markers and contribute for the first time in Algeria to create the genetic fingerprint of the Saharan bread wheat resources and to valorize their drought resistance potential through breeding programs.

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Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.

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Progress in plant molecular tools has been resulted in the development of gene-targeted and functional marker systems. CAAT box region is a different pattern of nucleotides with a consensus sequence, GGCCAATCT, which situated upstream of the start codon of eukaryote genes and plays an important role during transcription. In the present study, several CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) primers were used for fingerprinting in mini-core collection of durum wheat (including internationally developed breeding lines and Iranian landraces). Twelve selected primers amplified 98 loci, of which all were polymorphic. The average values of the polymorphism information content (PIC) and resolving power (Rp) were 0.31 and 9.16, respectively, indicating a high level of variability among studied genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 92% of the total variation resided among populations. The values of the percentage polymorphic bands (PPL), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nei’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) for Iranian landraces were higher than the breeding lines. The Fandendrogram obtained by cluster analysis grouped all individuals into three main clusters. Our results showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied durum wheat, especially among Iranian landraces, which can be interest for future breeding programs. More importantly, the present study also revealed that CBDP technique was efficient and powerful tool to assess genetic diversity in wheat germplasm. Hence, this technique could be employed individually or in combination with other molecular markers to evaluate genetic diversity and relations among different species.

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Persicaria with 70–100 species in the world is distributed in temperate regions of both hemispheres. It has 11 species in Iran growing in moist areas and margins of rivers. Through hybridisation, plasticity and existence of overlapping habitats, species identification shows difficulty. In this study, we aimed to investigate karyotype characters and morphological features, evaluate genetic variability within and among species studied and examine species relationship using ISSR data. Nine annual taxa of Persicaria were gathered from different localities in Iran and used for studies. Our studies showed that combination of karyological, morphological and molecular data can delimit species studied. Based on karyological results, three chromosome counts (P. hydropiper (2n = 2x = 20), P. maculosa (2n = 2x = 22), P. orientalis (2n = 2x = 22)) were the first reports for the Flora of Iran. Analyses of morphological characters showed diagnostic features among taxa. STRUCTURE and AMOVA analyses showed high intraspecific genetic diversity. Our results suggested that phenotypic plasticity and hybridisation may cause genetic diversity within Persicaria species.

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The knowledge about genetic diversity in the wild relatives of wheat provides useful information for breeding programs and gene pool management. In the present study, an assessment of agro-morphological diversity and molecular variability among 70 accessions of Triticum, belonging to T. boeoticum, T. urartu, T. durum and T. aestivum species, collected from different regions of Iran was made. According to phenotypic analysis, all traits except peduncle length, stem diameter and the number of seeds per spike indicated a high level of diversity among studied accessions. Also, principal component analysis identified six components that explained 87.53% of the total variation in agro-morphological traits. In molecular analysis, 15 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers produced 166 bands, out of which, 162 (97.59%) were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated the 63% of the variation resided among populations. The maximum value of polymorphism information content (PIC), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nie’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) was detected for T. boeoticum than the other species. The SCoT-based tree revealed three different groups corresponding to the genomic constitution in Triticum germplasm, which was in part confirmed by STRUCTURE and principal coordinate (PCoA) analyses. Our results indicated a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied Iranian Triticum species, especially T. boeoticum, which can be of interest for future breeding and other analyses associated with future studies of the wild relatives of wheat. More importantly, our results revealed that SCoT markers could be used to accurate evaluate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among different Triticum species.

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