This paper presents a CAD-based approach for a new sheet metal forming technology that is Dieless Incremental Sheet Forming (DSF). This is established through the development of a program that allows a 3D model to be created with the use of a CAD Application Programming Interface (API) and an offline Slave Tool Path calculator based on a commercial CAM program’s output (Master Tool Path). The author will show how to apply parameterizations in the same model by utilizing the CAD API to overcome problems of a commercial post-processor and how to calculate Slave Tool Paths for different forming strategies.
Authors:E. Schmolz, R. Dewitz, B. Schricker and I. Lamprecht
Two geographical subspecies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the European bee A. m. carnica and the Egyptian bee A. m. lamarckii, were investigated by direct calorimetry. Maximum, mean and minimum heat production rates were determined for groups of 6 bees as a function of temperature and daytime. Smaller Egyptian subspecies showed significantly higher mass specific metabolic rates than the European one. Maximum and mean heat production rates decreased exponentially with growing temperatures while the minimum values remained constant.
Authors:María Camino García Fontán, I. Franco, M. E. Tornadijo and J. Carballo
A comparison of the results obtained using the classical methods with those of the API 20 Strep system was carried out in identifying 24 enterococci strains isolated from San Simón cow's milk cheese, a traditional Spanish variety. The results of both identification systems coincided exactly in 9 strains (37.5% of the strains studied). In one strain the results obtained using the classical methods did not coincide with those using the API 20 Strep method. 3 strains (12.5%) could not be identified using the API 20 Strep system. However, 11 strains (45%), that remained doubtful between both species E. faecalis and E. faecium on the basis of the classical methods, were identified using the API 20 Strep system. The API 20 Strep system does not include some biochemical tests of importance in identifying of foodborne enterococci and could not identify the atypical strains of Enterococcus. Moreover, this system is adapted to the identification of enterococci of clinical origin and their database does not include some species common in foods. However, it could have an application in combination with the classical methods in order to carry out a reasonably rapid and reliable identification of enterococci related to cheese.
Authors:A. Kandolf Borovšak, N. Ogrinc, N. Lilek and M. Korošec
. , Garipoglu , A.V. , Onder , H. , Ekinci , D. & Biyik , S. ( 2014 ): Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C 3 and C 4 plants) syrups by the
petrochemical industry are far larger than the ones from the fine chemical or Advanced pharmaceutical intermediate (API) industry.
The following sections summarize a few areas where such countries could benefit from local manufacturing using new
Authors:Nimzing G. Ladep, Edith N. Okeke, Mustapha S. Umar, Godwin Echejoh and Abraham O. Malu
We compared the diagnostic validity of three non-invasive tests of fibrosis: age to platelet index, aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index and aspartate transaminase to alanine transaminase ratio to histology fibrosis stage among Africans chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus.
Ninety treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients were subjected to liver biopsy. Excluded from the study were patients with HCV and HIV co-infection, and significant alcohol consumption. Staging was performed using the Metavir system, whereas AST, ALT, and platelet count were determined using manual methods, within 4 weeks of liver biopsy. Results of fibrosis score and markers of fibrosis were compared using EPI Info 2005 version 3.3.2.
The mean age of the study population was 31.8 ± 8.9 years. Fibrosis stages and AAR, API and APRI scores were positively correlated, respective correlation coefficients being 0.48, 0.48 and 0.22 (
%lt; 0.0001). Their positive predictive values were 52% (AAR), 63% (API) and 54% (APRI), with sensitivities of 60, 11 and 96%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of AAR for cirrhosis was 100%.
Non-invasive fibrosis markers are not as sensitive for diagnosing significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C patients and might have a limited utility for use in hepatitis B endemic populations.