text copy or paper abstract.
The innovation which is regarded as the basic requirement of research achievements is also the most obvious feature of academicpapers. Normally, innovative research
or not), one needs to reward the involved referees in one way or another (academic recognition and/or financial recognition). See again .
The proposed “natural selection of academicpapers” in Perakakis et al. ( 2010 ) contradicts the above
Authors:Pandelis Perakakis, Michael Taylor, Marco Mazza and Varvara Trachana
Academic papers, like genes, code for ideas or technological innovations that structure and transform the scientific organism
and consequently the society at large. Genes are subject to the process of natural selection which ensures that only the fittest
survive and contribute to the phenotype of the organism. The process of selection of academic papers, however, is far from
natural. Commercial for-profit publishing houses have taken control over the evaluation and access to scientific information
with serious consequences for the dissemination and advancement of knowledge. Academic authors and librarians are reacting
by developing an alternative publishing system based on free-access journals and self-archiving in institutional repositories
and global disciplinary libraries. Despite the emergence of such trends, the journal monopoly, rather than the scientific
community, is still in control of selecting papers and setting academic standards. Here we propose a dynamical and transparent
peer review process, which we believe will accelerate the transition to a fully open and free-for-all science that will allow
the natural selection of the fittest ideas.
Authors:J. A. García, Rosa Rodriguez-Sánchez and J. Fdez-Valdivia
and journal ranking models. For example, it may guide student choice of a university and department to pursue a graduate degree (Dridi et al. 2010 ).
The number of academicpapers produced in a year by each member of staff in a department
. Whereas Simon's ( 1955 ) urn model simply generated a frequency distribution for papers per author, Gilbert ( 1997 ) represented individual academicpapers with references to past papers and some contents. Using two continuous variables to represent paper
that, the most up-to-date academicpapers should be reviewed first. – The less is more , meaning that only the necessary number of sources, should be included; hence, clearing should not be forgotten and only the necessary number of classes should be
Authors:Clara Eugenia Garcia and Luis Sanz-Menéndez
Summary Research quality is the cornerstone of modern science, it is used in the understanding of reputational differences among scientific and academic institutions. Traditionally, scientific activity is measured by a set of indicators and well-established bibliometric techniques based on the number of academic papers published in top-ranked journals or on the number of citations of these papers. These indicators are usually critical in measuring differences in research performance, both at individual and at scientific institutional levels. In this paper, we introduce an alternative and complementary set of indicators based on the results of competition for research funding, that aims to enlarge the framework in which research performance has traditionally been measured. Theoretical support for this paper is found in the role that the search for funding plays in the researchers’ credibility cycle as well as in peer review, the basic instrument for the allocation of public R&D funds. Our method analyses the outcomes of the researchers’ struggle for funding, using data from research proposal applications and awards, as the unit of observation, and aggregating them by research institutions to rank them in relative scales of research competitiveness.
Authors:Schumpeter Tamada, Yusuke Naito, Fumio Kodama, Kiminori Gemba and Jun Suzuki
The authors have constructed an original database of the full text of the Japanese Patent Gazette published since 1994. The
database includes not only the front page but also the body text of more than 880,000 granted Japanese patents. By reading
the full texts of all 1,500 patent samples, we found that some inventors cite many academic papers in addition to earlier
patents in the body texts of their Japanese patents. Using manually extracted academic paper citations and patent citations
as “right” answers, we fine-tuned a search algorithm that automatically retrieves cited scientific papers and patents from
the entire texts of all the Japanese patents in the database. An academic paper citation in a patent text indicates that the
inventor used scientific knowledge in the cited paper when he/she invented the idea codified in the citing patent. The degree
of science linkage, as measured by the number of research papers cited in patent documents, is particularly strong in biotechnology.
Among other types of technology, those related to photographic-sensitized material, cryptography, optical computing, and speech
recognition also show strong science linkage. This suggests that the degree of dependence on scientific knowledge differs
from technology to technology and therefore, different ways of university-industry collaboration are necessary for different
Authors:Fuyuki Yoshikane, Yutaka Suzuki and Keita Tsuji
interdisciplinarity in terms of “citation among academicpapers” (e.g., Lariviere and Gingras 2010 ; Yoshikane et al. 2011 ), there are very few studies that have studied the same in terms of “citation among patents.” Understanding the relationship between the