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text copy or paper abstract. Social value The innovation which is regarded as the basic requirement of research achievements is also the most obvious feature of academic papers. Normally, innovative research

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or not), one needs to reward the involved referees in one way or another (academic recognition and/or financial recognition). See again [1]. The proposed “natural selection of academic papers” in Perakakis et al. ( 2010 ) contradicts the above

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Scientometrics
Authors: Pandelis Perakakis, Michael Taylor, Marco Mazza and Varvara Trachana

Abstract  

Academic papers, like genes, code for ideas or technological innovations that structure and transform the scientific organism and consequently the society at large. Genes are subject to the process of natural selection which ensures that only the fittest survive and contribute to the phenotype of the organism. The process of selection of academic papers, however, is far from natural. Commercial for-profit publishing houses have taken control over the evaluation and access to scientific information with serious consequences for the dissemination and advancement of knowledge. Academic authors and librarians are reacting by developing an alternative publishing system based on free-access journals and self-archiving in institutional repositories and global disciplinary libraries. Despite the emergence of such trends, the journal monopoly, rather than the scientific community, is still in control of selecting papers and setting academic standards. Here we propose a dynamical and transparent peer review process, which we believe will accelerate the transition to a fully open and free-for-all science that will allow the natural selection of the fittest ideas.

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Understanding the role of open peer review and dynamic academic articles

Authors’ reply to “Problems with natural selection of academic papers”

Scientometrics
Authors: Pandelis Perakakis, Michael Taylor, Marco G. Mazza and Varvara Trachana

is not if, but when, natural selection of academic papers will become a reality. References 1. Egghe, L. Problems with “natural

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and journal ranking models. For example, it may guide student choice of a university and department to pursue a graduate degree (Dridi et al. 2010 ). The number of academic papers produced in a year by each member of staff in a department

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. Whereas Simon's ( 1955 ) urn model simply generated a frequency distribution for papers per author, Gilbert ( 1997 ) represented individual academic papers with references to past papers and some contents. Using two continuous variables to represent paper

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that, the most up-to-date academic papers should be reviewed first. – The less is more , meaning that only the necessary number of sources, should be included; hence, clearing should not be forgotten and only the necessary number of classes should be

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Summary Research quality is the cornerstone of modern science, it is used in the understanding of reputational differences among scientific and academic institutions. Traditionally, scientific activity is measured by a set of indicators and well-established bibliometric techniques based on the number of academic papers published in top-ranked journals or on the number of citations of these papers. These indicators are usually critical in measuring differences in research performance, both at individual and at scientific institutional levels. In this paper, we introduce an alternative and complementary set of indicators based on the results of competition for research funding, that aims to enlarge the framework in which research performance has traditionally been measured. Theoretical support for this paper is found in the role that the search for funding plays in the researchers’ credibility cycle as well as in peer review, the basic instrument for the allocation of public R&D funds. Our method analyses the outcomes of the researchers’ struggle for funding, using data from research proposal applications and awards, as the unit of observation, and aggregating them by research institutions to rank them in relative scales of research competitiveness.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Schumpeter Tamada, Yusuke Naito, Fumio Kodama, Kiminori Gemba and Jun Suzuki

Summary  

The authors have constructed an original database of the full text of the Japanese Patent Gazette published since 1994. The database includes not only the front page but also the body text of more than 880,000 granted Japanese patents. By reading the full texts of all 1,500 patent samples, we found that some inventors cite many academic papers in addition to earlier patents in the body texts of their Japanese patents. Using manually extracted academic paper citations and patent citations as “right” answers, we fine-tuned a search algorithm that automatically retrieves cited scientific papers and patents from the entire texts of all the Japanese patents in the database. An academic paper citation in a patent text indicates that the inventor used scientific knowledge in the cited paper when he/she invented the idea codified in the citing patent. The degree of science linkage, as measured by the number of research papers cited in patent documents, is particularly strong in biotechnology. Among other types of technology, those related to photographic-sensitized material, cryptography, optical computing, and speech recognition also show strong science linkage. This suggests that the degree of dependence on scientific knowledge differs from technology to technology and therefore, different ways of university-industry collaboration are necessary for different technology fields.

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interdisciplinarity in terms of “citation among academic papers” (e.g., Lariviere and Gingras 2010 ; Yoshikane et al. 2011 ), there are very few studies that have studied the same in terms of “citation among patents.” Understanding the relationship between the

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