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Annicchiarico, P. (1997): Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis of genotype-location interaction in variety trials repeated over years. Theor. Appl. Genet. , 94 , 1072

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A set of 286 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with the parents and a popular wheat variety in India were grown for two consecutive years at three locations belonging to the two major wheat growing zones of India and evaluated for four grain quality traits. Rare recombinants with high trait value appeared for protein content (PC), thousand-kernel weight (TKW), sedimentation value (SV), and kernel hardness (KH). The magnitude of environmental effects was more pronounced than genotypic effects and genotype-environment interaction (GEI). The cumulative contribution of environment and GEI components to the total variance was highest in the expression of PC followed by TKW, SV, and KH. The top five percent (14 RILs) of genotypes with high trait value were subjected to Eberhart and Russell (1966) (ER), genotype and genotype-environment (GGE) and additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability models. Five RILs were identified as stable in all the three stability models. RIL61 with 38.8%, RIL101 with 8.9%, RIL226 with 26.1% superiority over check variety were the most stable genotypes in all the three stability models for PC, TKW and KH, respectively. RIL113 was found to be stable genotype in ER and GGE models, whereas, RIL231 was the most stable genotype in AMMI and GGE models in the expression of SV. These common stable genotypes with high trait value identified through ER, AMMI and GGE models could be potential donors in active breeding programs to develop high yielding wheat varieties with improved PC, TKW, SV and KH.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. L. Krishnamurthy, S. K. Sharma, D. K. Sharma, P. C. Sharma, Y. P. Singh, V. K. Mishra, D. Burman, B. Maji, B. K. Bandyopadhyay, S. Mandal, S. K. Sarangi, R. K. Gautam, P. K. Singh, K. K. Manohara, B. C. Marandi, D. P. Singh, G. Padmavathi, P. B. Vanve, K. D. Patil, S. Thirumeni, O. P. Verma, A. H. Khan, S. Tiwari, M. Shakila, A. M. Ismail, G. B. Gregorio and R. K. Singh

Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction effects are of special interest for identifying the most suitable genotypes with respect to target environments, representative locations and other specific stresses. Twenty-two advanced breeding lines contributed by the national partners of the Salinity Tolerance Breeding Network (STBN) along with four checks were evaluated across 12 different salt affected sites comprising five coastal saline and seven alkaline environments in India. The study was conducted to assess the G × E interaction and stability of advanced breeding lines for yield and yield components using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. In the AMMI1 biplot, there were two mega-environments (ME) includes ME-A as CARI, KARAIKAL, TRICHY and NDUAT with winning genotype CSR 2K 262; and ME-B as KARSO, LUCKN, KARSA, GOA, CRRI, DRR, BIHAR and PANVE with winning genotypes CSR 36. Genotypes CSR 2K 262, CSR 27, NDRK 11-4, NDRK 11-3, NDRK 11-2, CSR 2K 255 and PNL 1-1-1-6-7-1 were identified as specifically adapted to favorable locations. The stability and adaptability of AMMI indicated that the best yielding genotypes were CSR 2K 262 for both coastal saline and alkaline environments and CSR 36 for alkaline environment. CARI and PANVEL were found as the most discernible environments for genotypic performance because of the greatest GE interaction. The genotype CSR 36 is specifically adapted to coastal saline environments GOA, KARSO, DRR, CRRI and BIHAR and while genotype CSR 2K 262 adapted to alkaline environments LUCKN, NDUAT, TRICH and KARAI. Use of most adapted lines could be used directly as varieties. Using them as donors for wide or specific adaptability with selection in the target environment offers the best opportunity for widening the genetic base of coastal salinity and alkalinity stress tolerance and development of adapted genotypes. Highly stable genotypes can improve the rice productivity in salt-affected areas and ensure livelihood of the resource poor farming communities.

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Durum wheat is a good source of protein. A grain protein content of 13% for durum is a standard in quality throughout the grain industry (Riley et al. 1998). Protein content like other traits in wheat is known to be affected by genetic and environmental factors mainly location (Bement et al. 2003). In this study we evaluated a set of 25 genotypes comprising introduction from CIMMYT and advanced lines developed through hybridization by the Ethiopian National Durum Wheat Research Project (NDWP) for protein content over six testing locations, representing the wheat agro-ecologies in the country. The experiments were conducted in a randomised complete block design (RBD) with three replications each. Plot size was kept at 2 m 2 . Grain protein content was analyzed following Kjeldahl method (A.A.C.C. 1983). Stability analysis was done according to Eberhart and Russel (1966) model and effect of locations and its interaction with genotypes were estimated following additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The mean grain protein content varied from 11.61 to 13.52% among the genotypes. Only three genotypes, namely CD98206, DZ3117 and DZ-04-118 attained higher grain protein content than standard 13.00%. Stability analysis revealed that all but three genotypes were observed to be predictable. DZ 2212-1BS was found suitable for favorable environments. Genotype CD97383 was found sensitive to change in environment. Eight genotypes were identified as stable. Genotypes DZ3117 was found to be the best having maximum protein content recorded at AlemTena location and higher yield with stable performance across locations. AMMI analysis revealed that the first two significant IPCA scores together explained 73.55% of the total interaction variance. Biplot graphical analysis showed Alem Tena as the best location followed by Debre Zeit and Minjar in terms of average protein content of genotypes. Genotype DZ1669-1AK scored zero and could be considered as stable and wide adaptable having protein content higher than the general mean. The graphical analysis of IPCA 1 and IPCA 2 further revealed that this genotype was relatively close to origin zero. Genotype DZ-04-118 was adapted to Debre Zeit and Minjar while a large numbers of genotypes with negative IPCA score were adapted to Akaki and Chefe Donsa locations. Genotype DZ3117 had specific adaptability to Alem Tena location. High protein but low grain yield at Alem Tena may be due to the drought occurrence during grain filling period.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: N. Pržulj, M. Mirosavljević, P. Čanak, M. Zorić and J. Boćanski

References Annicchiarico , P. 1997 . Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) of genotype-location interaction in variety trials

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