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The discursive battlefield of agricultural biotechnology

Érvelési stratégiák és narratívák a hazai kutatói vitákban

Társadalomkutatás
Author: Réka Matolay

A genetikai módosítás (GM) mezőgazdasági alkalmazásai (az agrárbiotechnológia) rendkívül vitatottak, korántsem legitimek jelen társadalmunkban. A hazai médiabeli viták egyik kiemelt szereplőinek, a kutatóknak a cikksorozatait elemeztem a kritikai diskurzuselemzés diskurzustörténeti megközelítésében. A biotechnológia legitimációjáért, illetve delegitimációjáért folyó diszkurzív csatamezőn hatféle argumentációs stratégiát és két narratívát tártam föl: a megbélyegzés, a kizárás, az elfogult összehasonlítások, a leválasztás, a bagatellizálás és az érvelési helycserék argumentációs stratégiáit, valamint a Pusztai-ügy és a versenyképesség narratíváit. Mindezek a vitázó felek erőforrásai a legitimáció diszkurzív stratégiáinak szolgálatában. A legitimáció diszkurzív stratégiái egyúttal tükrözik és alakítják az uralkodó társadalmi rendet, azon belül is a tudomány és a piaci társadalom hatalmi rendjét. A mikroszintű szövegekben zajló diszkurzív pengeváltások tehát nem függetleníthetők a makroszinten folyó hatalmi csatáktól.

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As locus-specific co-dominant PCR-based markers that allow semi-automated, high-throughput investigation technologies, microsatellites are ideal tools for genotype identification. Eleven of a set of 114 microsatellite markers available at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center proved to be suitable to distinguish between the parents of at least one of nine sweet pepper hybrid combinations. Markers with the highest information capacity were found to be capable of distinguishing between the parents of four different hybrid combinations and exhibited up to four different alleles in 18 haplotypes.

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Large numbers of genetically stable, homozygous plants are needed for classical and molecular breeding programmes. In vitro anther culture has proved to be a useful tool for haploid/doubled haploid (DH) induction in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for more than twenty years. The present paper reports on a great improvement in the in vitro haploid induction and genome duplication methods routinely used for resistance breeding in sweet and spice peppers by two Hungarian research institutions, the Agricultural Biotechnology Center in Gödöllő and the Budapest Research Unit of the Vegetable Crops Research Institute. As a result of the colchicine-stimulated early genome induction method, the critically low (<0.1%) regeneration frequency of spice pepper types became ten times greater, reaching a value of around 1.0%, though this was still considerably lower than that achieved in pepper varieties for fresh consumption (5-10%). Moreover, the ratio of useful doubled haploids was far higher (H:DH = 1:2 or 1:4) in some cases after colchicine treatment than that of untreated control plants (H:DH = 2:1 or 3:1, depending on the genotype). An efficient method with good reproducibility, requiring less manual work, was elaborated for the in vitro genome duplication of pepper haploid regenerants using colchicine. When the haploid induction ability of plants conventionally cultured in the greenhouse was compared to that of plants raised under artificial conditions in phytotron chambers (satisfactory day and night temperatures, illumination, humidity), the responsiveness of the latter microspores (ratio of plant regeneration) was found to be almost twice as high. The application of 3% maltose for six days at 35°C resulted in a 1.45% increase in the ratio of responding anthers and a 0.34% increase in plant regeneration, averaged over all the variety types. Phenosafranin staining was used for the analysis of microspore viability. The reduction in viability during the induction period proved to be less pronounced in lines with better androgenetic responses than in those with poorer responsiveness.

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Stewart, T. P. & Johanson, D. S., 1999. Policy in flux: the European Union's laws on agricultural biotechnology and their effects on international trade. Drake Journal of Agricultural Law. 4 . 246--295. Policy in flux: the

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Lipp, M., Shillito, R., Giroux, R., Spiegelhalter, F., Charlton, S., Pinero, D., Song, P. 2005. Polymerase chain reaction technology as analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology. J. of AOAC Internat. 88 :136

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.W. & Pantella , V. 2006 : Immunoassay as an analytical tool in agricultural biotechnology . J. AOAC Int. 89 , 913 – 928 . Hilbeck , A

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Taylor, N. J. and Fauquet, C. M. (2002): Microparticle bombardment as a tool in plant science and agricultural biotechnology. DNA Cell Biol. 21 , 963–977. Fauquet C. M. Microparticle

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Chess, C. (1998): Fearing fear: Communication about agricultural biotechnology. AgBioForum , 1 (1), 17–21. http.//www.agbioforum.org Chess C. Fearing fear: Communication

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, J.Y., Liu, D.J., Tao, W.J., Li, W.L., Chen, P.D. 1999. Study on the conversion of RFLP markers co-segregated with Pm4a to sequenced-tagged-site markers. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology 2 :113

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Agricultural Biotechnology. In: Subramanian, G., Kaushik, B. D., Venkataraman, G. S. (eds) Cyanobacterial Biotechnology. Oxford & IBH Publ, New Delhi, pp. 223-230. 223 230

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