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In the article the manuscript of the first Arabic prose work is being investigated. The author comes to the conclusion that it was written originally in Greek by somebody who was attached to one of the rhetoric schools in Syria. The Greek work contains the alleged correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great. The Greek version of the novel in letters must be dated back to the sixth century A.D., thus the work is one of the last documents of the classical Greek literature. Through this novel one can get a better insight into the activity of the schools of rhetoric in the late Antiquity and the question of Pseudo-Aristotle's treatises.

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In spite of the main goal of the annalistic narration of Livy, the description of the history of Rome, Alexander the Great has an important role in the Ab Urbe condita . In this way, Livy composed the first known counterfactual episode of European historiography (IX 17–19). Moreover, Livy compared the courage, knowledge and the fortune of the Macedonian and the Roman military commanders, and the opposing forces. Livy presents Alexander with his bad traits, therefore the historiographer denies the divinity of the Macedonian king. Livy opposes the few Greeks, who rejected the order of Augustus, and hated the princeps himself.

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. Morello (n. 1) 65. See Morello (n. 1) 67 and 69. See Morello (n. 1) 70–72. Livy 8. 3. 6. For the connection of Alexander the Great to his uncle’s failed invasion, see Ligeti, D. Á : Elements of

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The tradition of Alexander the Great influenced strongly Livy’s historiography. Although the marginal Roman state of the 4th century BC only had negligible connections to Alexander the Great, his figure and historical role were in the center of Livy’s interest. Beside the famous Alexandros digression (IX 17–19), Livy used other elements of the Hellenistic tradition which was based on the prosopography of Alexander III.

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While in Fars (January/February-May/June 330 B.C.) Alexander tried to gain acceptance of the Persians as the lawful successor to the Achaemenid kings. Failure of this endeavour and the perceived danger of Darius' III lead to a Macedonian campaign of terror aiming at breaking the Persian will to resist. It culminated in burning three palatial buildings in Persepolis in May 330 B.C. Alexander's decision to do so, rational at the moment of its execution, proved a mistake after the resistance organized by Darius III collapsed.

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Antik Tanulmányok
Authors: József Benczei, József Vekerdi, Rita Kopeczky and István Borzsák

Új latin nyelvkönyv a hazai jogászképzésben (Bánóczi Rozália-Rihmer Zoltán: Latin nyelvkönyv joghallgatók számára. Kezdôknek, Nemzeti Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest 2000. XIV + 222 oldal, 2 lapnyi kivágható táblázat. Bánóczi Rozália-Rihmer Zoltán: Latin nyelvkönyv az állam- és jogtudományi karok hallgatói számára. Egyetemi jegyzet, ELTE ÁJK, Budapest 1999, XII + 202 oldal, 2 lapnyi kivágható táblázat.); Szepes Erika: Anakreon-variációk: Vágyott életminőség avagy sorsközösség? Gondolatok Géher István: Anakreóni dalok címû kötete kapcsán. Bp. 2002. Orpheusz könyvek, 158 lap.; Birkhan, Helmut: Kelten. Versuch einer Gesamtdarstellung IhrerKultur. Wien 1997; Baynham, Elizabeth: Alexander  the Great. The Unique History of Quintus Curtius. Ann Arbor 1998, XIV + 237 lap.; Schroder, W. A.: Der Altertumswissenschaftler Eduard Norden (1868-1941). Hildesheim-Zürich-New York 2001, 214 lap

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The roots of physiology — on the basis of a systematic study of the human body’s functions and their correlation to anatomy — date back to the works of Aristotle. The pupil of Plato and the tutor of Alexander the Great was a one-man university, and his contributions to the medical sciences have been immense. His surviving works highlight the first serious approach towards the rejection of metaphysical and mythological thought, and have: (i) demonstrated a deep appreciation for a systematic, non-metaphysical study of the natural world, (ii) set the foundations of comparative and human anatomy, (iii) established the first (indirect) definition of the “physiologist”, and (iv) exercised a dominant influence upon the subsequent history of Hellenistic, European and Arabic Medicine. The current letter provides a short commentary on the historical account of Physiology as a scientific field and underlines the unique legacy that Aristotle has provided us with.

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The relationship of the three earliest sources (Herodotus, Plato, Xanthus) relating how Gyges came to power is controversial. Their most striking common feature is the motif of Gyges seizing power through getting hold of the queen. The close connection of the queen and power proves to be an Eastern motif, a special Persian interpretation of the translatio imperii , according to which the royal woman bears the glory representing the sovereign power (χvarәnah-) and providing the ruler with legitimacy. Deriving from the Persian ideology of sovereignty, this motif tends to appear in Herodotus, in Xenophon and in the tradition about Alexander the Great. Therefore, the earliest sources relating this story must originate from the Old Persian short stories. The authenticity of the tale about Aladdin in the One Thousand and One Nights has been questioned several times since it does not have a tradition of codices. However, its parallels with the Gyges stories, particularly the presence of the special Persian interpretation of the translatio imperii suggest a common Persian source, thus, the tale is likely to be authentic.

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References 1 Plutarkhosz: Parallel CVs, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. [Párhuzamos életrajzok. Nagy Sándor és Julius Caesar.] Osiris Kiadó, Budapest, 2005

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